Backtrack Volume 34 (乐彩网17500cn)

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SR Merchant Navy Pacific No.35003 Royal Mail
departs from Bournemouth Central with the
Bournemouth Belle for Waterloo on 9August 1965.
David Rodgers
January (Number 345)

Getting around London. Michael Blakemore. 3
Editorial about the aptly named Cross Rail (Crossrail)

Up and down Snowdon Mountain. David Idle. 4-5
Colour photo-feature based on photographs taken of Abt system railway with Swiss Locomotive Co. locomotives on 9/10 September 1971 in near perfect weather : No. 4 Snowdon on 11,30 from Llanberis to the Summit near Halfway staion; No. 6 Padarn shunting rolling stock at Llanberis; No. 3 Wydffa above Clogwyn with 14.05 from Llanberis; No. 4 Snowdon on works train descending from Summit Hotel crossing Upper Viaduact at Llanberis; No. 6 Padarn leaving Clogwyn with 13.25 from Llanberis approaching 1½ gradient

Andrew James. The G5 tanks: an appreciation of performance. 6-11
Perfornance in the Allen/Nock sense but limited to light loads on all-stations services. The sole exception is a downhill dash from Knaresborough to York with five coaches in 1938 (perhaps emulating the streamliners). Comparisons are made with a D49 class 4-4-0 on the climb from Horsforth towards Bramhope and with diesel railcars. Recorders included Semmens and cooment by Landau. Illustrations: No. 67343 at Sleights on Whitby to Malton local train in March 1954 (colour: J.M. Jarvis); No. 2085 outside Whitby locomotive shed on 1 June 1936 (T.E. Rounthwaite); No. 468 (in lined green livery) entering Croft Spa station with a Darlington to Richmond train on 17 July 1920 (W. Rogerson); No. 67253 at Pateley Bridge with train for Harrogate on 24 Match 1951 (Geoff Horsman); No. 67320 at Bishop Auckland on 09.22 from Durham with Driver Lee on footplate on 20 June 1957 (J.F. Mallon); No. 67253 at Ripley Junction with train for Pateley Bridge c1950 (J.W. Hague); No. 67253 arriving Dacre on Pateley Bridge branch (J.W. Hague); No. 67339 arrives at Monkseaton with 13.40 from Blyth on 9 June 1956 (T.J. Edgington) see letter from Gerald Knox — locomotive working in push & pull mode and had pushed train from Blyth; No. 67253 at Pateley Bridge on a wet day c1950 (J.W. Hague); No. 67266 at Durham station in June 1957 (colour)

A.J. Mullay. Leith — Britain's first diesel depot? 12-17.
Author wrote a briefer account of depot aspects of Leith Central in Volume 7. Purists will argue that it was not purpose-built, but was a conversion from an extravagant passenger terminal constructed during a period of ludicrous competition between the Caledonian, North British and other Scottish railways and the failure to note the emergence of the electric tramcar. The Caledonian had envisaged building a circular railway to serve Leith and return under Calton Hill and beneath Princes Street. This not meet with approval by the City Council, nor with the North British, but to appease Leith's councillors the North British promised to construct a terminal there. The NBR was slow to implement its promise and Leith Central did not open until 1 July 1903. The train shed was built by Sir William Arrol of Forth Bridge fame. Surprisingly the NBR Study Group has only published a short article on the venue. In the prelude to nationalisation the LNER had contemplated using diesel electric locomotives on the East Coast Main Line and using Leith Central as one of its depots for them. The Inter-City multiple units were built  at Swindon and were stabled and maintained at  Leith Central. Mullay considers that they were under-designed, but they did have buffets and some proper corridor coaches, but lacked real speed, air conditioning and a livery comparable with the Irish Enterprise units. Unfortunately, Mullay does not pursue the origin of the Inter-City name which later dominated British Rail as Intercity and was widely used around the world. Illustrations: Metro-Cammell DMU with whiskers inside depot c1959; oil storage tanks; Birmingham RCW diesel electric locomotive; female cleaners adorning Gloucester RC&W DMU; male cleaners with machine working on nether regions of Intere-City DMU; female and one male cleaners posed at Cragientinny; mess room for staff with cat at Leith Central; two footplate staff in Leith Central; preserved GNoS 4-4-0 No. 49 Gordon Highlander on Scottish Rambler railtour at Leith Central on 19 April 1965 (David Idle colour). See also letter from Joh Macnab on the convoluted Inter-City diesel multiple units annd their Ayrshire brethren 

Geoffrey Skelsey. Crossing London: the City Widened Lines and the Thameslink saga. Part One. 18-23
Begins with a quotation from Alan Jackson, "doyen of London railway historians" where he notes how he descended illicitly from Holborn Viaduct station down into the soot encrusted Snow Hill platforms. The Metropolitan Railway linked Bishop's Road (Paddington) with Farringdon Street from January 1863. It also linked with the Great Northern Railway at King's Cross and later with the Midland Railway. The London, Chatham & Dover Railway constructed a City line which crossed the Thames at Blackfriars and connected with the Metropolitan at Farringdon and with the Widened Lines from King's Cross to Farringdon and on to Ald ersgate Street (later Barbican) and Moorgate Street. These extra lines enabled through traffic from the Great Northern and Midland to cross London and each Moorgate without disrupting the main Metropolitan services. Illustrations: map of City Widened Lines with northern connections and link to Walworth Road to south as in 1914; Doré engraving of Ludgate Hill with dirty steam train on bridge obscuring St. Paul's Cathedral; Ray Street Gridiron' Aldersgate & Barbican station with Metropolitan Railway lozenge logo on centre platforms; Farringdon & High Holborn station street facade in late 1950s? (colour); Holborn Viaduct Hotel and station in SECR period; station platforms at same period as previous (John Alsop Collection); station platforms with office block behind in 1964; Aldersgate & Barbican station with flared-side London Transport train in red livery in April 1961 (colour); Moorgate station in 1959 with Class 3 2-6-2T No. 40024 and Metropolitan Line T Class stock in brown livery and ex-District Railway F Class (oval driver's windows) in red livery in 1959 (colour); Class 31 exiting Ray Street Dip and enetering Farringdon station with A class train behind in 1976 (colour); 1943 London Plan for underground (main line) dimension tobe system. See also letter from Andy Sharples who made a slightly more licit entry inot the underworld at Holborn Viaduct (KPJ also explored this area courtesy of the Rubber Growers' Association which had a cellar full of books and documents in that area in the 1960s. Part 2 see page 178. See letter from Michael J. Smith on page 318 (not even the great GBS can enter Lonndon Tansport territory without censure from MJS!)

Jeffrey Wells. Goole's railways: 1836-1910. 24-31.
Mike Fell's The illustrated history of the Port of Goole and its railways. (Irwell Press) is rightly called seminal. Goole and its port was essentially the product of the Aire & Calder Navigation and was involved in the exchange of cargo between river craft and ocean going vessels and was near to the former Yorkshire Coalfield and the textile and iron based industries which grew up on it. As usual with this author much is based upon newspaper reports (some from some weird sourcess), but a return is made to Fell at intervals to ensure veracity. The Leeds Intelligencer  reported on the sod cutting ceremony by Rober Pemberton Milnes of Fryston Hall. Illustrations: 0-4-0ST No. 51222 at Goole in March 1962 (colour); map; lattice girder over Dutch River; continuation of previous over Aire & Calder Canal; see letter from E. Scarlett on page 318. Q6 0-8-0 No. 2246 with long freight of mainly open wagons passing Goole station en route to Hull; Goole Bridge (swing bridge) at Skelton; L&YR steamship Rother with refrigeration used on Goole to Copenhagen service with No. 2 Compartment Boat hoist alongside (see latter from Mike Fell on page 189); 0-4-0ST No. 51241 crossing road holding up traffic; Goole station with DMU on 26 August 1956; SS Equity drawing alongside Tannett Walker hydraulic hoist; Goole station with shoppers awaiting train for Hull

Southern holidays. David Rodgers. 32-5
Colour photo-feature: rebuilt West Country No. 34013 Okehampton on Eastleigh shed on 10 August 1965; Merchant Navy No, 35007 Aberdeen Commónwealth at Southampton Central with an up express on 8 August 1965; unrebuilt West Country No. 34019 Bideford on up fitted freight passing Winchester City on 12 August 1965; BR Class 4 4-6-0 No. 75035 on freight from Eastleigh to Southampton with Class 4 2-6-0 No. 76033 and Hampshire diesel electric multiple unit in background; rebuilt Battle of Britain class Pacific No. 34090 Sir Eustace Missenden, Southern Railway backs through Southampton Central having brought down a Union Castle Line special on 8 August 1965; unrebuilt West Country No. 34015 Exmouth moves out of east bay platform at Bournemouth  Central to take over an express for Waterloo on 8 August 1965; rebuilt West Country No. 34026 Yes Tor on turntable at Bournemouth shed on 9 August 1965reader Philip Shelton objects to caption's claim that Yes Tor is highest point on Dartmoor; rebuilt No. No. 34001 derailed and being hauled back onto track at Bournemouth  Central in June 1967; RMS Queen Mary steams down Southampton Water on 12 August 1965   

Peter Butler. The stations at Wellingborough.  36-9
First railway to arrive was the Peterborough branch of the London & Birmingham Railway, authorised in 1843 and opened throughout in June 1845 which began at Blisworth ran through Nortampton and Wellingborough to Peterborough where it made an end-on junction with the Eastern Counties Railway to provide a route for agricultural produce to London. Stations on the line were designed by J.W. Livock. At the prompting of a Bedfordshire landowner, William Whitbread, the Leicester & Hitchin Railway was authorised in 1853 and opened in 1857 and this enabled coal from the Midlands to reach London. John Ellis and John William Everard were also involved in the southward development of the Midland Railway. This line ran via Wellingborough and Bedford and gave Wellingborough a further outlet, but congestion on the Great Northern forced the Midland Railway to construct its own route into London from Bedford which opened in 1868. Wellingborough and the surrounding settlements of Rushden and Higham Ferrers were locations for boot and shoe manufacture. During the construction of the new railways iron ore was discovered in the area and furnaces were opened in Wellingborough using coal from the Midlands, Naturally, the East Coast formed an obvious place for the residents of Northampton and Wellingborough to go on holiday and eventually to retire, but the railway closers like Beeching failed to perceive that links with this area should be retained and although there are some  not too slow bus links these fail to connect with residual railway services. The main station at Wellingborough is located on a sharp bend which needs to be bypassed for fast services and modified for eleectric traction should it arrive before the Great Flood. Illustrations: Wellingborough Midland Road with down push & pull service leaving on 29 July 1961 powered by BR Class 2 2-6-2T No. 84006 (Ken Fairey); Wellingborough London Road on 30 April 1960 (R.M. Casserley); MR 1P 0-4-4T No. 1246 with Higham Ferrers branch train at Midland station on 3 July 1937 (H.C. Casserley); Beyer Garratt 2-6-6-2 No. 47969 on spur from Wellingborough London Road to Midland main line crossing River Nene on 26 June 1957 (Ken Fairey); Wellingborough Station signal box in July 1987; level crossing at London Road station in June 1967 (Ian Wright); air raid precautions signal box at Wellingborough Junction on 2 October 1983; entrance to Midland station on 3 February 1979; Class 45 No. 45 101 leaves Wellingborough with 16.35 from St. Pancras on 5 May 1986. Very informative letter from Robin Leleux on page 189 

Coal hauling. Keith Dungate. 40-2
Colour photo-feature: MGR hopper wagons (merry-go-round trains) from collieries or coal import terminals to electricity generating stations used to be a key feature: two Southern Region Class 73 electro-diesels Nos, 73119 and 118 Romney, Hythe & Dymchurch Railway on third rail system at Barming with 13.25 Betteshanger to Hither Green on 4 June 1987; Class 58 No. 58 045 passing Banbury under lower quadrant GWR signals with 16.05 Didcot Power Station to Toton MGR empties on 14 September 1987; Class 33 Nos. 33 035 and 013 near Borough Green with 13.25 Betteshanger to Hither Green on 19 July 1988; English, Welsh & Scottish EWS Class 37 No. 37 716 (in rich  red livery) double-heading with another Type 37 leaving Tyne Yard for Healey Mills on 4 September 1998; EWS Class 66 No. 66 061 on 07.16 Chalmerston Colliery to Cottam Power Station at Forge Locks, Kirkstall alongside Leeds & Liverpool Canal on 10 September 1999; EWS Class 66 No. 66 045 on 07.25 MGR train from Hunterston coal import terminal to High Marnham Power Station approaching Kirkstall Loop on 9 September 1999; EWS Class 60 No. 60 053 passing through unloading house at Drax Power Station on 29 May 1997; Class 58 No. 58 026 passing through Crewe Station with empty MGR wagons passing Class 81 No. 81 011 in Corporate blue livery    

Shades of Old Euston. 43
Black & white photo-feature: aerial photograph without date but showing damage by bombing to some domestic buidings (early WW2?) caption suggests post-WW2; Euston departure Platforms Nos. 11 and 12 with trains loading in summer 1947 with mmany female passengers, three fully clothed nuns and some young children; publicity photograph from September 1949 showing gloomy entrance to Northern Line, poster advertising Sunday excursion trains and another for Swan Pens; Platform 14 with business passengers (maale and female) awaiting arrival of carriages in smoky, but sunny atmoshere (one smoking a pipe! standing facing mayoress of some northern borough); Eversholt Street showing roof over arrival side platforms; roof over arrival side platforms observed from above (building within station compllex) and cab road adjacent platforms 2 and 3 in 1947 

Paul Joyce. The LSWR Turnchapel branch 1897-1961. 46-52
Previously described in Backtrack in 2017, 31, 676. The branch opened on 1 July 1897 with passenger services running to Plymouth Friary station.  During WW2 Plymouth was very severely bombed: so severely that Winston Churchill contemplated imposing marshall law on the civilian population who were fleeing to the country. Plymouth's suffering has featured in other Backtrack articles: notably by Helm. Illustrations (all by H.C. Casserley unless noted otherwise) and most trains formed of Gate Stock with push & pull trailer: T1 0-4-4T No. 17 leaving Friary station with train for Tavistock on 11 July 1924; O2 class No. 177 in LSWR livery passing Friary shed with service for Turnchapel on 18 July 1924; O2 class No. 200 departs from Lucas Terrace Halt for Plymstock on 5 August 1928; map from Plymouth steam by Ian H. Lane; O2 No. 218 (in LSWR livery) crossing  swing bridge over entrance to Hooe Lake with 12.12 service from Friary (also shows Bayly's Wharf);; O2 No. 207 waiting for departure from Turnchapel; )2 No. 233 with stovepipe chimney on swing bridge; GWR 43XX No. 5321 on Friary shed turntable on 30 August 1945 (L. Crozier); O2 No. 218 propelling 11.24 from Friary over swing bridge; fire in oil storage tangs behind Turnchapel station on 28 November 1940; O2 No. 30182 (not visible) propelling Gate Stock into Plymstock on 2 May 1959 on RCTS railtour to celebrate Royal Albert Beridge centenary (R.M. Casserley); Cattewater Junction after closure of Cattewate branch; Oreston station..

Miles Macnair. From road unto rail exercises in technology transfer: the later transfers. Part two. 53-6.
Previous Part: Cites Fletcher. Considers Timothy Burstall's steam carriage of 1824 which incorporated a form of four-wheel drive, the genesis of a flash-type boiler and a flexible steam pipe. Burstall's locomotive Perserverance which was damaged being unloaded for the Rainhill Trials is next considered.. William Church took out several patents for road locomotives according to Macnair, attempted to operate a steam coach between Birmingham and Coventry and developed an 0-2-2 well tank with 11¼-inch cylinders and an unusual boiler. It was known as Victoria on the Grand Junction Railway where it was alleged to have achieved 60 mile/h and was then renamed Surprise to work on the Biirmingham & Gloucester Railway on the Lickey Incline as a banking engine. It exploded at Bromsgove, killing the enginemen who have a memorial in Bromsgrove churchyard. The locomotive was renamed Eclipse and worked as an 0-6-0T with a conventional boiler on the Swansea Vale Railway. William Henry James is considered as designer of road tugs or tractors with water tube boilers for which he obtaines patents. Macnair is the author of a key study of William Henry James and his father. Illustrations: Timothy Burstall's steam carriage of 1824 (diagram: Fletcher); Timothy Burstall's  locomotive Perserverance; Church's London  & Birminham Carriage Co. steam carriage (colour illustration from Popular Science Monthly, 1900 August); side view of previous (black & white engraving); Church's locomotive  Surprise in original condition (colour: Robin Barnes painting); tombstones for Thomas Scaife and Joseph Rutherford (photograph by D, Webb: caption notes erroneous depiction Norris style locomotives); William Henry James's steam carriage with water-tube boiler and four cylinders trialled in Epping Forest (engraving: Fletcher); William Henry James's steam tug with water-tube boiler and condenser (Mechanics Magazine); imagined scene at Rainhill Trials of James's steam tug adapted for railway traction (colour: Robin Barnes painting)

Signalling spotlight: signalling at Hammerton. Richard Foster (text) and Roger Backhouse (colour photographs). 57
Instruments at Hammerton station controlling level crossing and single line thence to Poppleton on York to Harrogate branch: levers in enclosed ground frame; block instrument controlling double line section to Cattal (BR standard plastic type) with Welwyn emergency release; Tyers key token instrument.

Alistair F. Nisbet. Tickets for bathers and curlers. 58-61
Sea bathing at Broughty Ferry was encouraged for early travellers from Dundee East station by the issue of early morning return tickets. Carnoustie was promoted as a bathing resort for Forfar with reduced rate season tickets provided by the Caledonian Railway. There is a shaggy dog story concerning Thomas Nelson, the publisher, being billed by the North British Railway for dog travel whilst he was away: the dog continued to take the bathers' train from Edinburgh down to Granton for his swim in the Forth. This was related in the children's column of the Cardiff Times in December 1887. The Great Western offered bathers tickets from Bridport to West Bsy during the sunner of 1885. Ireland had its fair share of sea bathers:: the Cork Constitutional advertised excursions to Youghal and The Freeman;s Journal noted a Sunday Bathers' train to Blackrock from Westland Row. Derry was served by the Londonderry & Lough Swilly with evening excursions to Buncrana and these even ran in the early part of WW2 (presumably before the chilling accounts of German planes flying over neutral Ireland to bomb Glasgow). Curling prior to indoor ice rinks was highly dependent upon intense cold and outdoor venues tended to be situated in frost hollows. Bonspiels had to be arranged at short notice. The Glasgow Herald of 11 January 1850 notified its readers that the Royal Caledonian Curling Club had organised two special trains to be run by the Glasgow & Ayr Railway to Lochwinnoch—a somewhat mucky stretch of water alongside the railway. Carsebeck between Stirling and Perth was chosen as a "permanent" venue which could be flooded and was near the Scottins Central Railway. Other venues included Lindores Loch and Aboyne. Illustrations: Granton station; Broughty Ferry station with Cakledonian train; cartoon of sexes rather too close whilst bathing; West Ferry station with C16 4-4-2T No. 67501 on train of former LMS stock (W.A.C. Smith); Carnoustie station in pregrouping period; Greenwich station frontage in SECR period; West Bay with GWR saddle tank on passenger train with no sign of a bather; lady curlers on a frozen pond (colour); Lochwinnoch station with GSWR 2-4-0? on a freight. See also letter from Andrew Kleissner.

Readers' Forum. 62

The railways of Rutland and Stamford . Stephen G. Abbott
Harringworth viaduct was built in red brick, but as this has weathered it has been replaced progressively by blue engineering brick, leading to the piebald appearance visible in the illustration on p684 of David Brandon's article (November). As well as the passenger services mentioned, the route over the viaduct sees use by heavy freight. Trains of steel for tube-making run from Margam in South Wales to Corby and several stone and cement trains per day are routed between Syston and Kettering via Manton. They thus avoid the busy three/two-track section of the Midland Main Line via Leicester and Market Harborough and the climbs to Kibworth and Desborough summits. Through its tunnels, heavy earthworks and viaducts the Manton-Kettering route is more easily graded.

Mugby Junction and Tutbury. Michael Pearson
It would have been fun to accompany Nicholas Daunt to Mugby Junction in the mid-fifties, especially his favoured perch alongside the girder bridge carrying the Great Central over the Premier Line. I share his sneaking preference for the A3s over the A4s, mostly I suspect, because of their evocative racehorse-inspired names. Apart from Carlisle, was there anywhere else, I wonder, where Stanier and Gresley Pacifies rubbed shoulders on a daily basis? Manchester London Road couldn't be relied upon because, as you point out in the photo-spread in the same issue, Longsight's turntable wasn't lengthy enough. Mr. Daunt implicitly attributes the Great Central's transfer from the Eastern Region to the London Midland to the line's subsequent decline. Which begs the question: did any Regional transfer ever benefit a route? Patently not the Southern's West Country lines once the Western Region had got its hands on them, nor indeed the Western's own Birkenhead main line when it became part of the London Midland.
Mike Fell's two-patter on Tutbury came close to 659乐彩. On occasions in the mid-sixties I'd undertake a ten-mile return bicycle ride there as an alternative to my lineside vigils by the allotments opposite 17B. Alas too late to see the Uttoxeter milk trundle through — in the form of a solitary BG behind an Ll — but in time to witness Clayton Type 1s emerge in garish pink undercoat from their maker's Hatton workshops. I still can't smell coffee without shuddering at the thought of them. And one halcyon day, by written arrangement, my long lost friend Robert Lathbury and I enjoyed a footplate ride out from the mill on to the trestle bridge spanning the Dove aboard the very Peckett pictured on p616. Heady times.

Electrifying Merseyside. David Greening 
As one who grew up on Merseyside in the 1950s, he enjoyed Michael Baker's informative article. In case, however, any reader is researching the price of day return tickets form Liverpool to London in 1957, the caption to the lower photograph on p691 cannot be correct. The photograph shows Liverpool tram 958 on Lime Street whilst the caption reads that this was taken in 1957. Tram route 14, on which the tram is operating, however, was converted to motor buses in November 1955. The following bus in the background appears to be one of the Leyland Titan PD2/12 batches of buses (from the opening toplights in the upstairs front windows and the indicator layout) which were introduced from 1952, so a date between 1952 and 1955 seems likelier for this photograph.

Odd 'Princess' out. Allan C. Baker
The caption in the illustrations in the November issue makes the often repeated mistake of associating the casings above the footplate level and alongside the boiler as covering the actual turbines. In fact both turbines, forward and reverse, are located in the casings below the footplating. The housings above contain the steam control valves for their respective turbines and the reason for the longer one on the left- hand side is because it houses the control rods between the cab and the valves. The control rod for the right-hand, reverse turbine passes underneath the boiler at its mid-point and can be clearly seen in the two illustrations on p667, where it emerges on the right-hand side of the locomotive. During my apprenticeship in the Motive Power Department at Crewe, one of the fitters I worked with, Tiggy Brearton, was one of those trained to travel with the engine, as a fitter always did. While he was not a regular on this job, as Camden and Edge Hill men were, he was one of a few trained on the line-of-route the engine regularly worked, in case of any irregular working. However, he did on occasion have longer spells, covering for holidays and sickness. He main recollection of his travels was how much oil the forward turbine and drive mechanism consumed, a supply being kept on the engine and the level checked at the end of each run. Incidentally, I never heard any railwaymen refer to the engine as the Turbomotive', usually just as The Turbine'.

Metropolitan & Great Central line stopping trains. David Hibbert
Centre photograph on p671 shows a view of Wendover station looking towards Aylesbury. The red enamel sign only applies to the platform end 'Do not cross the track etc' but the station name signs are not enamel but paper posters. Great Missenden and Stoke Mandeville also had similar LT paper name signs.
The signal at the platform end is not a Great Central Railway pattern but an early Metropolitan Railway pattern. This is the starter for trains going on the branch towards RAF Halton Camp. This signal arm is preserved by myself. Details of this signal are described in the publication The Metropolitan Railway by C. Baker. It is described in this book on p63 - "The blade extended beyond the spectacles and, by partially balancing the signal, minimised the effect of snow building up on the arm and tending to lower it to the 'off' position." However, this extension is missing from the Wendover signal but the stumps of three screws that held the extension are still in situ.

Book reviews. 62

GWR goods cartage. Volume 2: Garages, liveries, cartage and containers Tony Atkins. Crecy Publishing, 2019, hardback, 208 pp. Reviewed by GAB. *****
This and its companion Volume 1 have been published posthumously, following Tony Atkins's death in September 2018. Together they provide an exhaustive study of the goods cartage department of the GWR from the early days of the company to 1947. Having covered the horse-drawn era and the vehicles of the mechanised era in Volume 1, Volume 2 completes this part of the story with chapters on the management and maintenance of the motor vehicles, their liveries and numbering, and a l6-page fleet list.
It then goes on to study what, for the reviewer, is the more interesting aspect of the department — its business history. Beginning with a chapter on Cartage Agents, outside firms that entered into an agreement with the GWR to provide a collection and delivery (C&D) service from a particular station. Some had been carriers before the arrival of the railway. Over the years the GWR slowly took them over, particularly in the twentieth century when the horse-drawn fleets were superseded by motor vehicles, but the last, Thomas Bantock & Co., survived until after nationalisation. This then leads into a chapter on the GWR's C&D concentration schemes — Country Lorry 乐彩网17500cn, Railhead Distribution, Special Contract Railhead Distribution and Zonal Collection and Delivery — all designed to provide door-to-door services to compete effectively with road hauliers.
The livestock business is covered in a chapter on Cattle Markets, Horse Fairs and Agricultural Shows, followed by one on Special Cartage Activities; the extent to which the GWR would go to provide a 'go anywhere' heavy-haulage service for exceptional loads, using special tractor and trailer equipment, is astonishing, including haulage beyond the road network across a l0ft deep bog and up a mountain side. Lift-vans and containers in great variety are dealt with comprehensively, before a final chapter on the Economics and Costs of Cartage, focusing mainly on the inter-war years. It includes much statistical data on the comparative costs of horse- drawn v. motor-driven cartage, GWR v. agents' cartage, and on the wage rates and earnings of each of the many grades of staff employed.
The text is throughout supported by a large selection of well-reproduced photographs and drawings. Also notable are the facsimile reproductions from the company's instruction books and other documents that show how the business was managed.
GWR devotees will recognise that these are the final volumes of a series of nine, which together provide a comprehensive history of goods transport on the GWR in all its complexity without parallel in the field of railway history. Tony Atkins worked on it for over 40 years, first as a joint author, but from the fourth volume the sole author, with the vision and devotion to see the series through to completion. He has left us with the nearest we are ever likely to see to a definitive account of goods transport on Britain's railways as a whole in the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries.

Ambergate to Buxton including Peak Rail. Vic Mitchell and Keith Smith. Middleton Press, hardback, 96 pp. Reviewed by DWM **
As a dyed-in-the-wool Derbyshireman your reviewer approached this book with some relish — but oh, what a disappointment! The book, one of the Country Railway Routes series, conforms to the usual Middleton Press formula. There is a brief written introduction, both geographical and historical and including a gradient profile and a selection of historic timetables, followed by a pictorial journey along line with an impressive selection of large-scale maps to illustrate locations. As in previous comments on books of this series your reviewer was impressed with the use made of the large scale maps. On the other hand the photographs are a pretty work-a-day selection with many of the historical ones being old friends and the contemporary ones often seeming to be no more than a personal record of a day out in the area. An honourable exception is the picture of the Garratt trundling through Matlock en route for Rowsley in the summer of 1951. The captions are a mixed bunch, lack of detailed local information about the Matlock area might be excused but a '4F 4-4-0' ... ! And of the major railway installation on the route, the marshalling yard and motive power depot at Rowsley, there is but a very sparse coverage. The last few pages of the book form a serviceable summary of the local preserved railway, Peak Rail. The caption to picture 117 is a fascinating record as to how the operations at Matlock might have developed. Unless the Backtrack reader is intent on obtaining a complete set of the 'Ultimate Rail Encyclopedia' then this book cannot really be commended.

A winter's dale. George Watson. rear cpver
Class 5 No. 45346 leaves Skipton in snow on 2 February 1960 with Morecambe to Leeds train

LNER B1 4-6-0 No.61211 departs
from Retford, taking the Lincoln
line, in 1958. (Derek Penney)
February (Number 346)

George Stephenson's last 659乐彩 at risk Philip Riden
Guest Editorial on threat to Tapton House in Chesterfield, the 659乐彩 of George Stephenson and at ns worthy as a crooked spire for preservation as part of British heritage. Written by a lecturer in the Department of History at the University of Nottingham and major historian of County of Derbyshire. See also letter from Peter Steer who notes that John Smith Raworth was son of Epenetes Raworth who was housekeeper at Tapton House and had a son John Smith Raworth who was a distinguished electrical engineer who in turn had a son Alfred, Chief Electrical Engineer of the Southern Railway,

More mixed freight. David Idle. 68-9.
Colour photo-feature: 9F 2-10-0 No. 92039 on train of cement wagons near Stevenage with semaphore signals and telegraph poles on 8 May 1962 see letter from David Monk-Steel; O1 2-8-0 No. 63760 on coal train (in hopper wagons) at Deerness Valley Junction near Durham on 29 October 1962; Class 5 4-6-0 No. 45181 on up fitted freight passing under bridge on Furness & Midland Joint on approach to Carnforth on 30 July 1965 (train of banana vans see same letter from David Monk-Steel); Stanier Class 4 2-6-4T No. 42439 passing abandoned engine shed at Oxenholme with train of ballast wagoms on 30 July 1965; WD Austerity 2-8-0 No. 90721 working tender-first with westbound? mineral wagons at Wakefield Kirkgate on 1 November 1965; BRCW Type 3 No. D6528 in original livery passing Woking on down freight and Q1 0-6-0 on adjacent track with construction spoil on 28 December 1965.

Jeremy Clarke. In praise of the moguls. Part one. 70-3.
Brief menttion of the type's development in North America; the extraordinary claim that the Garstang & Knott End Railway impoorted one in "about 1870" see letter from Mike Davies; the first British manifestation in Massey Bromley's 527 class for the Great Eastern Railway which in turn reflected Bromley's visit to the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The Midland, Great Northern and Great Central Railways bought Americal locomotives manufactured by Baldwin and Schenectady which received an equivocal response by British footplate crews and the railway press. The Midland & South West Junction acquired a Beyer Peacock locomotive which had been intended for South America and was so pleased with it that another was purchased. When the line was taken over by the Great Western this latter received a standard No, 9 Swindon boiler. It is not clear when it receievd the nickname Galloping Alice. See also letters from Mike Barnsley and Mike Davies on page 254, Some 2-6-0s were elongated 0-6-0s: the Caledonian and Glasgow & South Western had designs of this type and the GWR Aberdares were broadly similar (Irish designs are not mentioned). The Churchward 43XX was an almost modern design in having outside cylinders, taper boiler, Belpaire firebox and superheater, but inside valve gear. Collett distrusted pony trucks and sought to rebuild the type as 4-6-0s of the Grange and Manor classes: the earlier Churchward/Dean Aberdare class is omitted!. Gresley brought outside valve gear, but retained the cheaper round-top boiler and gradually enlarged boiler size and in the K3 type introduced his three-cylinder type with derived motion. These were very powerful, but very rough at high speed. Having drafted some of the smaller 2-6-0s to the West Highland line (and fittel shorter chimneys and boiler mountings and side-window cabs) and some of them names of lochs he eventually designed what was in effect a K3 chassis fitted with a K2 boiler producing a powerful  locomotive. Thomson rebuilt a solitary K3 class as a two-cylinder locomotive and one of the K4 in a similar way. Peppercorn used the latter as the basis for the standard K1 class which was almost a 2-6-0 variant of the B1 4-6-0 type. Illustrations: Midland Railway Schenectady 2-6-0 No. 2526 on passenger train at Cudworth; 43XX No. 7321 passing Patchway on an express in 1930s; CR 34 class 2-6-0 No. 37 in blue livery; GSWR 16 class as LMS No. 17822 near Floriston on a freight train; K2/2 Nos 61789 Loch Laidon and 61790 Loch Lomond on 13.05 Mallaig to Fort William train on 12 June 1951 (Eric Bruton); K3 No. 186 on cattle train at Grantham inJuly 1933; K4 No. 61995 Cameron of Locheil (in apple green) on 10.25 Fort William to Mallaig on 11 June 1951 (Eric Bruton);  K1 No. 62008 on up parcels train at York on 24 August 1963 (T.J. Edgington). Part 2 

Allan Trotter. The Postal: ssorting the mail on a summer evening at Carstairs..74-6
A few observations on the Mark 1 (Mk1) Royal Mail vans and their gangways which unlike their predecesors were central and Pullman-type, but some early Mk1 vehicles had offset gangways to connect with earlier vehicles, such as the LMS vehicles. There were brake stowage or tender vans, stowage or tender vans and sorting vans. The last had racks for sorting mail; some had posting boxes and a few had apparatus for pickiing up and dropping off mail at traductors. This operation ceased in 1971. The evening described and photographed was in June 1977. The security at Carstairs was not conspicuous (false drops UGH). Illustrations: Up West Coast Postal hauled by Class 86 passing under Crosshill Street, Motherwell on 17 May 1977; Class 26 No.26 029 on Aberdeen portion at Carstairstrack layout at Carstairs in 1977 (diagram); M80329 sorting vehicle with post box and signs of former mail exchange equipment; interior of M80582 preserved sorting van on the Bo'ness & Kinneil Railway; M80456 brake stowage van and Class 81 No. 81 012 ready to depart for London.

Jeffrey Wells. Railways and the turf — the formative years. 77-81
Traffic generated by horse racing: railways greatly assisted with te movement of horses from their stables to racecourses. Attendance at race meetings was encouraged by the provision of special trains in some cases to special stations. Vamplew's The turf: a social and economic history of horse racing is cited together with another contibution by Vamplew and Tolson which is presumably a periodical article in an issue dated November 1998. Both the Liverpool & Manchester and Bolton & Leigh Railways ran special trains to a race meeting at Newton in June 1831 (reported in the Liverpool Mercury)

Saddle tanks on the Great Western Railway. 82-3.
Black & white photo-feature: No. 2194 Kidwelly (Avonside 1903 0-6-0ST acquired from Burry Port & Gwendraeth Valley Railway and fitted with a bell for working on Weymouth Quay at Taunton prior to withdrawal); No. 96 (Sharp Stewart 1856 0-4-0ST for Birkenhead Railway, reboilered at Wolverhampton in 1888); No. 1337 Hook Norton (Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST acquitred from liquidators of the Hook Norton Ironstone Partnership in 1804; 0-6-0ST No. 1385 John Owen with outside cylinders and valve gear and as rebuilt by GWR in 1894 (originally acquired from the Whitland & Cardigan Railway in 1886: Owen was the quarry owner at Glogue; locomotive built by Fox, Walker & Co. in 1872: sold in 1912 and worked at Cornsey Quarry & Brickworks in Co. Durham until 1052); 1661 class outside-frame 0-6-0ST No. 1670; 0-4-0ST No. 45 built at Wolverhampton Works in 1880, photographed  on 20 April 1937 probably inside Croes Newydd shed.

L.A. Summers. The splendour that was the single-wheeler. Part one. 84-90
A justifiable eulogy for a remarkable locomotive type: somewhere in KPJ's muddle there is a blue ticket that proves that he travelled from Glasgow Central to Muirkirk via Lanark on an excursion hauled by No. 123 — illustrated herein by a coloured photograph — the amazing fact is that iit could manage the climb to Craigenhill (haunt of Duchesses, Type 50 diesel electric locomotives, Inter-City 125s electrics. Pendolinos and those bat out of hell Cross Country mutiple units). Except in very early days singles were designed for speed. They were exceptionally beautiful, especially the 4-2-2 type. Summers obviously favours the Great Western type: KPJ greatly admiired the brief blue manifestion of the Kings! If Part 2 and subsequent parts? follow the standard achieved in Part 1 is indicative that this is major study of a significant stage in express locomotve development. Illustrations: broad gauge 4-2-2 (rebuilt from Bristol & Exeter Railway 4-2-4T No. 2002 (colour: from painting by Pat Reed); 4-2-2 No. 3070 Earl of Warwick on down fast formed of clerestory roofed carriages c1907; Achilles class 4-2-2 No.3047 Lorna Doone (colour: from painting in GWT Collection by the artist Philip D. Hawkins FGRA.); No. 3056 Wilkinson at Widney Manor c1914; Caledonian Railway 4-2-2 No. 123 as built; hand-tinted photograph of No. 123 in blue livery: Nock Scottish  railways states from a Dufaycolor photograph by Kenneth H. Leach); No. 123 as LMS No. 14010 at Pertth with Dundee train (H.C. Casserley); Stirling 4-2-2 No. 1007 (hand-tinted colour postcard); Stirling 4-2-2 No. 34 with Ivatt domed boiler at York; No. 1 inside old Railway Museum at York; Great Northern Railway Ireland No. 88 Victoria (inside cylinder 4-2-2) further informatiion; Johnson Midland Railway 4-2-2 No. 116 (hand-tinted coloured photograph); No. 644 (built as N0. 97) at Derby on 27 December 1921 (H.C. Casserley). Part 2

J. Crosse, 1966 — reflections on a spotter's travels. 91-5
KPJ like Larkin on sex considers that the end of steam came at the wrong time for him: he was too busy with learning about life's real problems (like parenthood) to have been able to participate in the Great Wake for steam. Thus Crosse's reflections are rather a blight on this oasis of thoughts on greater things like singles or the overwhelming need to burn less carbon: would that the beautiful Sadler articulated units had battery packs rather than diesel engines. Crosse lived in Bristol in 1966 where steam activity had been mandated tto end on 1 January and he mispent the year on trains and in coaches seeking it out in odd places in the United Kingdom. He used Rover t ickets and borrowed his father's car to extend his observations which included such rara avis as Q6 0-8-0s at Normanton. He even noted the other forms of traction such as the diesel hydraulics (soon to join the steam dinsaurs) evident in resorts like Westbury. Brush type 4s are always associated with hair or teeth and lack of oomph: these were noted almost everywhere. Illustrations: inside Bath Green Park shed on  6 March 1966 with assorted condemned (colour! Trevor Owen); rebuilt West Country No. 34001 being serviced at Banbury on 28 July 1966 before returning south with train from York; Ivatt 2-6-2T No. 41249 on closure day for Somerset & Dorset line RCTS special at Templecombe ( 6 March 1966); rebuilt West Country No. 34017 Ilfracombe at Brighton with 09.17 for Southammpton and...; Fairburn 2-6-4Ts Nos. 42052 and 42093 inside Manningham shed on 17 July 1966; NBR J37 No.64547 at Dundee on 1 April 1966;  Britannia No. 70004 at Westbury on 14 August 1966; Class 5 No. 45247 at Chester General coupled to failed DMU on 20 August 1966; Britannia No. 70027 in Calder Valley in April 1966 (colour: M. Chapman)

B1s — the LNER's Class 5 4-6-0s. Derek Penney. 96-9
Colour photo-feature: No. 61074 fresh from Works at Grantham motive power depot; No. 61262 leaving Tay Bridge with coal empties from Dundee in August 1966; No. 61118 approaching Perth from the south with a freight train in 1965; No. 61190 leaves Retford with a stopping train for Grimsby c1958; No. 61203 leaving March for Ely on an express leaving a large carbon footprint in January 1959; No. 61033 Dibateg crossing viaduct (with slogan FIGHT TORY RENT INCREASES ACT NOW daubed on it) on excursion between Wadsley Bridge and Sheffield in 1958; No. 61258 with self-weighing tender in sidings at Sheffield Victoria; No. 61251 Oliver Bury (see removal of "Sir" courtesy Sir Editor) with two-coach express (diesel railcar replacement?) alongside diesel railcar at Grantham c1962; No. 61221 SirAlexander Erskine-Hill on freight heading south from Perth in 1965.

Eric Stuart. Freight on the Underground. 100-5.
Author actually worked for London Transport. The largest freight activity was on the former Metropolitan Raillway and over the Widened Lines and East London Railway.There was also freight on the former LNER lines which formed the surface extensions of the Northern and Central Lines: this sometimes requires special timetabling to enable it to mesh into the normal regular interval pattern. Freight wagons  needed to be double coupled and there was a need for catch points on steep gradients. Steam locomotives needed condensing apparatus and trip cocks were required for all motive power. Headcodes to indicate routes were  also required. Illustrations: Electric locomotive No. 7 Edmund Burke with Chiltern Court freight for Chiltern Court, Baker Street; Western Region meat train hauled by 57XX (97XX series) at Farringdon near fial desistination at Smithfield depot; K class 2-6-4T No. 113 at Verney Junction on a freight train in 1930s; 633 class 0-6-0T Np. 643 with condensing apparatus at Old Oak Common in early 1930s; BTH Type 1 Bo-Bo on northbound freight at East Finchley in early 1960s (Ben Brooksbank); former Metropolitan District Railway 0-6-0T No. L30 at Kensington Olympia in 1959; N2 No. 69498 (69848 on incorrect caption) shunting at Finchley Central in mid-1950s; LMS Jinty 0-6-0T shunting coal wagons at High Street Kensington (this was covered in Backtrack, 2016, 30, 70); mural at Wapping station showing freight entering Thames Tunnel and  F stock emerging. See letter from Gervase Holdaway and response from Author concerning coal to Hammersmith & City Line via spur at Latimer Road. See also letters from Roger A. Smith and Nick Stanbury on page 365.

David Mosley. Irish diisesel traction. 106-8
Colour photo-feature with introductory notes an extended captions: Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. A1A+A1A diesel electric No. B112 with Sulzer 960hp engine; Meetro-Vick-Crossley A class 1200 hp Co-Co diesel electric No. A38 in lime green livery on an Irish Railway Record Society at an unrecorded locatiom Michael Davies states Dromin Junction on the main line of the GNR(I) on page 254; C class with 550 hp engine No. C215 at Mallow; power car AEC Park Royal No. 612 with two trailer cars and orange & blacl livery power car at other end entering Amiens Street, Dublin; power car AEC Park Royal No. 600 with another power car hauling two vans into Macmine Junction forming a train from Dublin to Wexford and Rosslare; AEC railbus at Inchicore in June 1961 (presumably had Howden Meredith wheels)

Phil Mathison. Sunk without trace: the railway and deep water Humber terminal that never was. 109-11
In the 1900s there was great distrust between the North Eastern Railway and the city of Hull in spite of the Hull & Barnsley Railway providing competition. In 1904 the North Eastern Railway proposed the Sunk Island Railway which would have statrted at a junction on the Withernsea branch and would have terminated on a pier nearly a mile out into the Humber. Ultimately the North Eastern abandoned the Sunk Island scheme in favour of the Riverside Quay opened in 1907 within the Albert Dock and sited within the City. Illustrations: Ordnance Survey map used by NER to show pier; Hawkins Point; NER map showing proposed branch; Ottringham Baulk crossing on A1033.

Roger Griffiths and John Hooper. Scarborough engine shed and its locomotives. Part One. 112-19
George Hudson's York & North Midland Railway opened from York to Scarborough on 7 July 1845; a year later a line from Bridlington joined this line at Seamer Junction, A two- road engine shed and six staff cottages served the lines and is illustrated as later converted into a goods shed which was abolished in 1906 to make space for the Londesborough Road excursion station. Two further routes reached Scarborogh: the Forge Valley line which linked Pickering to Seamer Junction opened in 1882 and the Scarborough and Whitby Railway opened in 1885.
Scarborough grew in popularity as a resort, assisted by rail traffic. The original engine shed had closed in 1882 and been replaced to the south by a brick-built, rectangular turntable shed (roundhouse), which had an access track from either end and eleven internal stabling roads off a 44ft 8in turntable made by Ianson, Son & Co. of Darlington. One of the stabling roads was spanned by a wooden, hand-operated shear legs. There was also an elevated coaling platform, and 38,000-gallon water tank. Cites Ken Hoole's North Eastern locomotive sheds for costs. The depot was sited alongside the Seamer Road and lack of  space led to an asymmetric design and soon became too small. In 1890 an eight-road, dead-end straight shed was opened on a site south of the semi-roundhouse and was erected on ground that had to be built up to provide a level area. It was constructed in brick. A 50ft turntable was installed in the yard just south of the roundhouse, opposite the coaling platform; but in 1924 was replaced by an outrigger type of 60ft diameter which was in turn replaced about 1953. See also letter from John Gibson on relevant National Archives records,
Illustrations: Ordnance Survey map of 1852 showing original engine shed; photograph of original serving as goods shed; LNER plan of 1932 showing engine sheds and loco. yard; exterior of main shed in 1900s with W class 0-6-0 No. 1805 and class O 0-4-4T No. 540 aand unidentified passenger tender engines behind; W class 4-6-2T No. 693 with brakes on bogie (thus post-1917) outside main depot (H. Gordon Tidey); A8 class locomotives Nos. 69867, 69877 and 69885 stored in old roundhouse in June 1959; J94 No. 68061 in storage in September 1961 (N.W. Skinner); in storage two A8 class (No. 69885) and two D20 (one of two with rebuilt tenders) in storage in winter 1952 (K.H. Cockerill); A8 No. 69886 on coal train; A2 No. 60516 Hycilla, No. 60522 Straight Deal (without nameplate) and 60515 Sun Stream in storage in straight road shed in early 1960s (N.W. Skinner); WD 2-8-0 No. 90030 heading freight for tunnel to Gallows Close goods station; Ivatt Class 4 2-6-0 No. 43124 emerging from tunnel from Gallows Close goods station (both Ron Hodge); D49 No. 62739 The Badsworth on empty stock in 1950s (Ron Hodge); Hughes 2-6-0 No. 62763 arrives with excursion from LMR (Ron Hodge). Part 2

Tony Robinson. Forgotten branches of North East Wales. Part three — The Holywell branch. 120-4
Crockford's Tramway was a narrow gauge tramway using horse drawn tubs which ran from a wharf at Greenfield up to Parry's Mine (letter from Author states mention of 'Parys Mine' in text (p. l20) should describe the site as an offshoot of the Parys copper mine in Anglesey where the ore was processed into wire and nails for shipbuilding in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In other words there wasn't actually a mine on that site. In 1891 the LNWR purchased the track bed and considered installing an electric tramway, but on 1 July 1912 Sir Gilbert Claughton reopened the branch: the LNWR having obtained legislation and relaid the line. Special arrangements had to be made due to the sttep 1 in 27 gradient, but there was no form of signalling on the branch. At the terminus there was a lift to raise and lower parcels: this was powered by vacuum off the locomotive. Illustrations: 0-6-2T No. 2518? on opening day with two coach train and crowd on zig zag path at Holywell Town; Holywell Juncttion with locomotive No. 2518 and same train as previous; Milnes-Daimler LNWR bus on Holywell to Station service in 1905; map; St. Winefride's Halt c1920; Ivatt 2-6-2T No. 41276 with auto (push & pull) coach at Holywell Town c1953 (N.R. Knight); 2-6-2T No. 41270 with brake van in goods yard at Holywell in 1951 (H.B. Priestley) see letter from Larry Davies: locomotive No. 41240; No. 41276 with push & pull coach at Holywell Junctionc1953; site of Holywell Town station in 2019.

Readers' Forum. 125

The Midland Compounds. Jim Dorward
Re excellent photograph of Perth station in December issue:.it is mainly of Platforms 8 and 9 at the north end of the station and not Platforms 5 and 6 at the south end as implied by the caption. Therefore the train at Platform 8, headed by engine No.40921, is heading north. If the year is 1954, it is probably the 05.50 to Struan. The train on the right, at Platform 7, is probably the 05.15am sleeper to Inverness. It is from Euston and probably running late. The restaurant car for the service is in the process of being attached to the rear of the train for early breakfasts while passengers enjoy the Highland Line scenery. Also, the train at the far end of Platform 5, which is a southbound platform, is not a Dundee train. The time of year is probably arount 21 June.

The Midland Compounds. Nick Daunt 
Re Williams statement that the pioneer locomotive, No. 1000, was stored at Derby from 1951 for "almost two years". Presumably, it was then that the engine was moved to Crewe as writer saw it in the paintshop, still in 8R lined black livery and bearing the number 41000, on 13 April 1956, when visiting the Works on an lan Allan Locospotters' excursion and was surprised to see it since it did not feature in the table of preserved locomotives in his ABC ('Historic Locomotives Preserved in Store') KPJ: it is not clear where this table was published. This included such celebrities as Cornwall and Hardwicke, but not No. 1000, possibly as the decision to preserve it had not yet been taken. In his Winter 1958/59 ABC it is noted as being at Crewe, but it must have moved back to Derby soon after that, since it was there that the restoration work took place.
On the subject of liveries, in the October 1959 edition of Train Illustrated there is a photo-feature entitled 'Sacrilege and Sanctification', which has two pictures, one of No.1000 looking resplendent in its restored Midland livery and the other of No.41101 at Newton Heath shed, painted bright yellow, with red splashers and cab side-sheets, and with 'Daily Mirror Andy Capp Blackpool Special' painted in large letters on its tender. Apparently, the special ran from Manchester to Blackpool on the August Bank Holiday Monday. The caption also notes that No.41101 borrowed the chime whistle from a 'Clan' 4-6-2 which was awaiting works! There are some Colour-Rail images of this outlandish apparition. See Steam World
Weiter saw and photographed No.1000 at Birmingham New Street on what was possibly its first outing in preservation, a run to York on 30 August 1959. I saw it again at the same location about a month later, an occasion which came very close to disaster. Just as the locomotive was about to set out from New Street's Platform 7 on the Midland side of the station, the safety valves lifted and a great jet of steam shot skywards. As it did so, it dislodged some of the glass in the very rickety overall roof which, unlike that on the LNWR side, had not been demolished after the Second World War. Large shards of thick glass, together with the accumulated soot and pigeon droppings of more than a century, came showering down on to the assembled group of admirers (including me), at the platform end. Miraculously, no-one was hurt although No.1000 sustained some dents to her lovely paintwork.

The Iron Horse. John C. Hughes
It is unfortunate that he only spotted the name of the illustrator of this book a week before the December Backtrack appeared. It appears on two (at least) of the drawings: 'Caught in the Act' and' Looking Out Ahead'. In both case it is near the bottom — Whymper—many readers will connect this name to Edward Whymper, the celebrated mountaineer who led the first successful attempt on the Matterhorn in 1865. It turns out that the climber's day job was the production of book illustrations, evidently including those for The Iron Horse.

The Iron Horse. Linda Death
In case anyone wants to read the original text of Ballantyne's The Iron Horse it's another one that is available free on Project Gutenberg at http://www. gutenberg.org/ebooks/21740

Marylebone collisions. Chris Mills 
The unrecorded location of No.6091 heading west with its lightweight train of one tank and a full brake is to be found about 200 yards west of Northwick Park & Kenton station. The end of the platform ramp can just be seen behind the train, on the very edge of the photograph. The signal controls the up Metropolitan fast line and the houses in the background are Nos.28/30 and 32/34 Northwick Avenuue.

Marylebone collisions. Doug Landau
The incident at Marylebone in 1913 prompted the author to comment on the carry-on attitude of the times. It reminded me of an incident from my schooldays nearly 40 years later in either 1951 or '52 at Rickmansworth on the Metropolitan-Great Central joint section. I was returning from a fishing trip, sitting comfortably with my back to the engine in the second coach, when I was thrown forward off my seat accompanied my a loud bang. The Met-Vic electric had coupled-up for the engine change a little too briskly. The leading coach, a wooden Meropolitan brake, was probably a write-off, about 6ft from the front the coach body woodwork had cracked vertically and across the roof, some letter racks had become detached and were strewn about the luggage compartment floor. There were no injuries. The damaged coach was soon removed and parked in the bay, the remaining stock deemed fit for travel, the Met-Vic coupled-up more gently and we were under way, elapsed time about half an hour. These days might such an incident have been deemed a crime scene, shutting the network down for a few hours?
The Met-Vic locos always looked very business like; the carry-on spirit was evidently still alive and well in the 1950s. Before signing off, does anyone have details of the fatal accident involving driver Simpson of Neasden shed c1946-47. He lived close by in Wembley and his son Michael was a school friend. Response from Den Sullivan on p, 189

The Southern in Devon through the 1970s . Roger Merry-Price
Re John Jarvis article in the November issue states that "BR(S) had not made any significant closures in Devon before publication of the Beeching Report" and then goes on to say that the Turnchapel line and Plymouth Friary station were two exceptions. I would disagree as these were not closures by the Southern Region but those of the Western.
In 1950 all the Southern lines west of Cowley Bridge Junction were transferred to the WR for administrative and commercial purposes. Operating and motive power arrangements, however, stayed with the SR. As a result a number of former Southern Railway buildings started to receive WR brown/cream painting schemes and WR signage. Such a building was the signal box at Crediton illustrated in Jarvis's article. The locomotive sheds, however, still being within the Southern Operating Area (as it was known), retained their 72' series shed numbers.
In 1958 all the former SR lines were transferred back to the Southern Region with the exception of those in the Plymouth area where the WR took over complete control including operating arrangements. As a result Plymouth Friary shed was transferred from the WR to the SR.
I am not suggesting that the SR was not consulted about the Turnchapel line closures (passenger in 1951, freight in 1961) or Plymouth Friary station (closed to passengers in 1958) but the Western Region made the actual decisions. Error in letter as published: see correction on page 318.

The Taft Vale Railway in the news. John Bushby 
Further to the article on the Taff Vale Railway (TVR) in theOctober 2019 issue, the fallout from the Taff Vale case of 1900 came, indirectly, to affect the Barry Railway some years later when Henry Frederick Golding (always referred to as H. F. Golding) was appointed Locomotive Superintendent in 1905. Golding, a now virtually forgotten figure, had begun his railway career on the London & South Western Railway as a pupil of William Adams. In 189, he joined the TVR as a draughtsman where his career prospered. Contemporary evidence at the time of the Taff Vale dispute indicates that he was very much on the side of the management and opposed to the strikers. In 1904 Golding was appointed TVR Assistant Locomotive Superintendent based at Penarth Dock. However, next year he took up the vacant post of Locomotive Superintendent on the Barry Railway.
Golding's management style on the Barry seems to have been notably strict even by standards of the age and he clearly had little or no time for trades unions. His time in post was marked by a series of disputes after his appointment in July 1905. These began with a list of grievances presented by footplatemen as early as November 1905. In 190 a Board of Trade investigation into the state of the Barry Railway locomotive stock was launched as a result of complaints voiced, in particular by those employed in the Locomotive Department. Whilst there are often two sides to an argument, and not all of the 1907 allegations were proven, Golding seems to have had an abrasive manner, although he was always described as being polite, and he certainly believed in hierarchy and discipline in the work place. It is significant that the men always stressed that they had no dispute with the company, they saw their issues as being with H. F. Golding. Inevitably, strike action resulted in 1908. It is also significant that both the strikers and the press, perhaps inevitably, made comparisons with the Taff Vale case. It is possible that Golding's uncompromising views on trades unions were hardened during that dispute although evidently, like many railway senior officers, he seems to have been opposed to trades unions having a role per se. The Barry's General Manager Edward Lake, for example at the time of these events, seems to have had a similar attitude.
Golding resigned suddenly in November 1909 for reasons that remain unclear. Invariably, when a senior Barry officer resigned or retired, a function was organised by his colleagues and duly reported in the local press. To date, no report of a farewell function for H. F. Golding has been found. His appointment was a rare misjudgement by the Barry's board which was generally well served by its senior officers. Nor, following Golding's resignation, had the Barry Railway seen the last of him. In 1910 he caused some disruption at a shareholders' half-yearly meeting when he protested that maintenance was being sacrificed for profit. Given that the company's shareholders' meetings were usually quite polite and non-controversial, this was a notable event. In contrast, his successor John Auld seems to have been a genial and approachable figure. Interestingly, none of the above events will be found in the official history of the Barry Railway published in 1923 to mark its effective absorption, officially amalgamation, into the Great Western Railway. A single sentence therein notes the dates of Golding's appointment and resignation and nothing else.

Double-heading  Bruce Coleman
As a subscriber from day 1 I do not recall an article specifically about double heading and I wonder whether one of your knowledgeable contributors would like to tackle this subject. How did the two locomotivess communicate with each other, was there a rule as to which was the train engine, how did they know whether they were 'pulling their weight' etc. Was it carried out anywhere else in steam days, other than in the UK?

Bob Farmer's Index
for Volume 33 is available from him at Bob.Rosemary.Farmer&gmail.com

Book reviews. 126

The North Berwick and Gullane branch lines.  Andrew M. Hajducki. Oakwood Press, soft back. 240pp. Reviewed by NM (=Sandy Mullay) *****
In 1935 a man was seen sitting alone at Drem railway station with an ornamental claret jug on his lap. Any golf enthusiast would know the significance of this trophy, awarded to the winner of the British Open. The traveller was Alf Perry, waiting for one of the London expresses which still stopped at this wayside station some twenty miles from Edinburgh. Drem was — and still is — the junction for the branch from the ECML to North Berwick, but Perry had just made sporting history at Muirfield, located at Gullane a few miles to the west. This anecdote came to mind when reading this new edition of a book recording the history of both the Gullane and North Berwick branch lines, although there is good reason for it not being included in this new Oakwood production, which comprises a second edition of Andrew Hajducki's excellent history of the two lines. Perry probably took a taxi to Drem since Gullane station had closed three years earlier and its junction, Longniddry, was not a recognised stop for long-distance services.
The author Andrew Hajducki produced his first edition of this book in 1992 in a hardback encompassing 192 pages. This new edition has 240 pages, with a colour cover and plates, and has been transformed from a hardback to a chunky paperback. It includes most of the first edition's monochrome photographs, the scale drawings of buildings, copies of relevant timetables and OS maps, and many new pictures bringing the story up to date. Though the Gullane branch may be consigned to history, the North Berwick line is thankfully still with us and electrified into the bargain.
It was intended at one time to build a loop off the ECML from Longniddry through Gullane, to North Berwick and then back to the main line at Drem, but this never materialised. Curiously, although both resorts were rail served, a connecting line was never completed between them, and that was despite local communities requesting such completion as late as 1915. It had to be pointed out to them that there was a war on at the time. SMT bus services were soon established in the area, making further rail development unlikely. Unfortunately, the author repeats the usual myth that the LMSR and LNER bought a '50% shareholding' in the bus company, something not bourne out by an examination of the archives of a bungled transaction. (See this reviewer's London's Scottish Railways, Tempus, 2005, pp 61- 64).
But even during the dismal 1960s, North Berwick survived the latest pogrom against nearly all of Scotland's remaining branch railways, and Mr. Hajducki's first edition covered this well. Having a vigorous and intelligent local community prepared to fight for their railway saw success which was denied to Gullane in the 1930s but also to St. Andrews, Scotland's and indeed the world's leading golfing resort, the latter particularly badly served by its local council where transport matters were concerned in 1968.
While we should of course be grateful for the North Berwick branch's survival, its present state is a sad comedown from when this reviewer first saw it in 1958. A compact two-platformed terminus, with a John Menzies bookstall at the buffer stops, it was distinguished by an impressive array of hanging baskets, in addition to the flower beds which were a seemingly essential part of a well-kept railway station [KPJ a party from North Berwick should be sent to West Runton where volunteers maintain a prize winning garden within walking distance of the Links Hotel]. At least, North Berwick still has a railway terminus (almost uniquely on the east coast of Scotland) and its history could hardly be better chronicled than in this authoritative work by Mr. Hajducki. Backed by the publishing expertise of Richard Stenlake, we have been given an excellent addition to Scottish railway literature.

The Southwold Railway 1879-1929: the tale of a Suffolk byway. David Lee, Alan Taylor and Rob Shorland-Ball. Pen & Sword Books. 248pp. Reviewed by Geoffrey Skelsey. ****
It is odd that, after waiting 90 years for a comprehensive history of the three-foot- gauge Southwold Railway in Suffolk, two arrive almost together. Inevitably this well-presented new title invites comparison with Peter Paye's history, reviewed in these pages recently (BT, April 2019, p253). There is naturally some overlap, for instance in the route descriptions, rolling stock details and the line's troubled history, but the newer title usefully complements the earlier one and the treatment is different. It relies substantially on the research and discoveries over many years of David Lee and Alan Taylor, which Rob Shorland-Ball has ably woven together into a fluent and engaging story.
The authors were able to do what many of us wish we had done, which was to locate in time people who knew the railway in operation and who worked on it. Notably B. E. Girling, the last Southwold station master, was the source of valuable particulars of daily operations on the line, including welcome details of train formations and locomotive working. Working timetables are illustrated and discussed, and there is a full account of the archaic signalling arrangements. Over 200 illustrations include a number which have not been published before and other original documents and diagrams have been unearthed to support the story. The unsuccessful Southwold Harbour branch, built as late as 1914 as a light railway (which the 'main line' wasn't), is described in full, including its improbable use in repatriating Dutch nationals in the Great War, prior to their embarking on steamers moored offshore. A poignant chapter describes the sad decline of the railway in the face of bus competition and the strangely lethargic response of the directors, who arguably threw in the towel too soon: the suggestion is that the summary closure, with barely any notice to traders, was an (unsuccessful) effort to bounce the local authorities into offering support. The protracted delay of over ten years in realising the company's assets, leaving the entire line and its equipment in limbo, is fully illustrated. Even then the company itself survived in a shadowy state and it is interesting to read full details of successive attempts to revive the line, beginning in 1930, with examples of original records.
As we have come to expect from this publisher, the book is (with one exception) a delight to read, beautifully laid out, and with first rate reproduction of photographs in generous sizes. The only reservation lies in the standard of some of the maps which deserved better treatment. The book ends on an encouraging note with an account of further efforts in more recent years to reopen the line (much of its trackbed survives intact), or at least to recreate a working replica.
Your reviewer bought both these titles and has no regrets: together they are a worthy commemoration of a unique and characterful line.

Operating the Caledonian Railway, Volume 1. Jim Summers, Lightmoor Press & the Caledonian Railway Association, 2019, 168pp, Reviewed by PT (Peter Tatlow?) *****
The history, construction, description of the lines, locomotives carriages and wagons, even signalling in some cases have been more than adequately written about for most railways; but how was all this put to use by running the traffic over the system and hopefully earning a dividend to recompense those who had invested their money in the first place? The means by which the railway actually operated is a topic long overdue for more thorough consideration and who better to undertake the task than Jirn Summers, a retired professional railwayman of 50 years standing?
The organisation of the Caledonian company, the working life and conditions of work for various grades of railwaymen are looked into, along with the running of marshalling yards, shunting of passenger trains and assisting or banking trains. Consideration is then given to the arrangements for handling additional trains and excursion traffic out-with the printed timetable. The pages are all copiously illustrated with photographs and extracts from relevant documents, together with some line diagrams, and the book is provided with appendices, bibliography and index.
Just because he has written about the Caledonian Railway's methods does not mean that this should not be of interest to a wider audience. There was a lot of common ground with other companies and the author is not past drawing attention to some differences over the years and by other Scottish and foreign companies.
This book is thoroughly recommended and I look forward to Volume 2, which promises to cover: train and resource planning, brakes, line capacity, control and plant, goods and passenger traffic working, electrification; performance, infrastructure, safety, accidents and recovery, impact of war, weather, crime, dealing with neighbours.

Shedding light on Standedge. Gavin Morrison. rear cover
Trans-Pennine Class 124 diesel multiple unit approaching Standedge Tunnel at Diggle which had been rationalized (canal in background, then closed to navigation has reopened: one may question Britain's transport priorities: canals for a handful of rich leisure seekers or trains for the masses?)

London Midland & Scottish Railway
5MT 2-6-0 No.42939 and its crew take
a break at Rugby on 9th August 1961.
(A.F. Hudson
March (Number 347)

Four wheels on my wagon. Michael Blakemore. 131
The Pacer four-wheeled multiple units. Michael Portillo was viewed in several and they all lived north of the Red Wall and were never seen even in East Anglia let alone south of the Thames except in the Far West. See repost from John Macnab.

To the Channel and beyond . Rodney Lissenden. 132-3
Colour photo-feature: work on the high-speed Channel Tunnel Rail Link — during 2002: EWS No. 66 016 stands on western end of new Medway Briadge near Cuxton with train of track panels alongside new M2 motorway bridge on 18 April 2002; Class 66 Nos. 66 076 and 66 097 outside east end of North Down Tunnel; Freightlinrt Class 66 Nos. 66 552 and 66 529 on empty ballast wagons on former Gravesend West branch and yet to be Ebbsfleet route from St. Pancras on 14 June 2002; Freightlinrt Class 66 Nos. 66 531 and 66 529 at either end of ballast train at Beach Brook Farm; and Class 20 No. D8188 alias 20 188 on wiiring train at Tutt Hill on 5 August 2002.

Bruce Laws. Colwick: where coal was king. Part One. 134-40.
Colwick or Netherfield was the key to the Great Northern Railway's own access to the Nottingham Coalfield which hitherto had been the fiefdom of the Midland Railway. The Great Northern Railway opened its own Derbyshire and Staffordshire extension line from Eggington Junction (on the North Staffordshire Railway's line from Stafford) to its own Derby Friar Gate station. The new GNR line, referred to colloquially as 'the back line', swept round the east and north of Nottingham via Basford and Daybrook. Its summit was reached at Arno Vale from where it passed through huge cuttings on either side of Mapperley Plains Tunnel and the descent to Gedling and Colwick. The London & North Western arrived in Colwick from Melton Mowbray and built its own engine shed and staff housing. The relationship with the Manchester Sheffield & Lincolnshire was complex, but led to the joint Victoria station. Illustrations: Colwick engine shed and coal sidings in 1907 (F.E. Mackay); map of Notttingham colliery lines; Stanier 8F 2-8-0 No. 48370 at Market Harborough on 2 April 1960; O1 2-8-0 No. 63777 at either Annesley or Colwick; O4/8 No. 63644 passing Nottingham Victoria with mineral wagons on 11 August 1964 (R.K. Blencowe); J11 9-6-0 No. 64397 at Colwick shed on 16 March 1958; J6 0-6-0 No. 64273 in Nottingham Victoria (R.K. Blencowe); A5 4-6-2T on local pssenger train in Nottingham Victoria; WD  aust erity No. 90000 at  Colwick shed in September 1955 (G.W. Sharpe); Ivatt Class 4 2-6-0 No. 43065 at  Colwick shed in 1963. Part 2 see page 299 and letter from Roger A. Smith. and from Robin Leleux on page 365.

Stephen Roberts. Oxfordshire's railways. 141-9.
This is mainly about the Great Western, but the London & North Eastern was legitimately able to name one its Shire class Oxfordshire as a few miles of the Great Central traversed the County (on what basis could the GWR appropriate the name Brocket Hall?). The Southern Railway worked train to Oxford and evn to Banbury and the LMS courtesy of the LNWR had a tatty terminus in Oxford, Branch lines included that to Fairford which during WW2 became important because of its links with aerodromes at Brize Norton (station formerly named Bampton) and at Carterton. Brize Norton signal cabin had a link to the airfield's control tower as the taxiways were very close to the railway. Illustrations: lined green No. 7921 Edstone Hall at Oxford on 12 December 1961 with train of Southhern Region green stock (colour); Great Western map (red colour); Oxford station with sauiidal employee running into path of locomotive c1910 (postcard in John Alsop Collection); Rebuilt Scot No. 46118 Royal Welch Regiment on local train in Banbury station on26 May 1962 (K.C.H. Fairey: colour); No. 6969 Wraysbury Hall painted black approaching Wolvercote Junction om down freight (A.E. Doyle: colour);; spotless LSWR T9 class 4-4-0 No. 118 on train of LSWR stock at Oxford forming a Machester to Bournemouth express in 1911 (John Alsop Collection); Castle class No.7005 Sir Edward Elgar picking up water from Charlbury wateer troughs with a London express on 1 June 1963 (G. Parry: colour); soldier and sailor join Wallingford auto train powered by 0-4-2T No. 1444 at Cholsey & Moulsford on 26 March 1959 (Ben Brooksbank); Atbara or Bulldog 4-4-0 calling at Steventon staation with an up express in 1900s; G2a 0-8-0 next to King class 4-6-0 on Oxford shed on 1 April 1961 (colour); Class 5 4-6-0 No. 45493 passung under Aynho flyover with through train to Bournemouth formed of Southern Region stock in 1966; single unit diesel railcar in Abingdon station in 1960s (Lamberhurst); Thame station (Lamberhurst)); 0-4-2T No. 1444 at Wallingford on 26 March 1959 (Ben Brooksbank); No. 6029 King Edward VIII on up Cambrian Coast Express at Banbury with diesel multiple unit alongside on 17 March 1962 (colour); 0-6-0PT No. 7412 at Witney with train for Fairford on 24 Frebruary 1962 (Ben Brooksbank); Oxfiord Rewley Road station with London Midland & Scottish Railway on frontage; Littlemore station in 1900s; Horspath Halt in snow on 5 January 1963 (Lamberhurst). See also letters on page 318 from Gerald Goodall, Peter Rance and Stephen G. Abbott and on page 365 from Robin Leleux.

Jeffrey Wells. Aspects of a Lancashire railway town: 1830-1910. 150-5.:.
Newton-in-Makerfield, also known as Newton-le-Willows was roughly the mid-point of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway. It was not far from the Sankey Viaduct which had to provide headroom for the Mersey flats which were sailing barges. A junction was provided for the Grand Junction Railway which linked Birmingham with Manchester and Liverpool via Warrington. This connectivity prompted the creation of a locomotive works which was to become yje Vulcan Foundry and the Earlestown wagon works. Illustrations: Sankey Viaduct (LNWR postcard based on engraving); map; Parkside station — west of Newton; (sketch); Newton Bridge station — Newton-le-Willows after 1888; Earlestown Junction station; Sankey Viaduct (colour image by Author); Webb 2-4-2T No. 2260 on push & pull train in Warrington platform at Earlestown Junction (caption notes architectural features of station building); G2a 0-8-0 No. 49249 passing through Earlestown via Haydock Flat Crossing on 24 July 1953; interior of Vulcan Foundry erecting shop; Precedent class 2-4-0 with long excursion train passing Stone's Crossing signal box; William Huskisson Memorial; Sankey Viaduct (colour: Author — shows massive nature of piers and their bases)

Riichard Clarke. Peak Forest, Buxton and Great Rocks. 156-9
Memories of a relief signalman in Derbyshire. His main source of transport was by bicycle with a near two hour ride to Grindleford from his 659乐彩 in Chapel-en-le-Frith. Illustrations: Great Rocks Junction in 1976; Chinley North Junction signal diagram; Horwich 2-6-0 No, 42796 approaching Chapel-en-le-Frith South with a freight from Buxton on 10 February 1982 (Alan Tyson); 8F No. 48190 shunting at Spencer's Sidings, Hindlow in 1962 (Colin Betts); track diagram in Chinley Station North Junction signal box in 1976; Richard Clarke at Chinley Station North Junction signal box in 1976; guard operating ground frame at Spencer's Sidings; Richard Clarke at Peak Forest South signal box in 1976.

Horwich's finest [Hughes 2-6-0]. 160-3.
Colour photo-feature: mixed traffic design, known as Crabs by enthusiasts due to their inclined outside cylinders and heavy Walschaerts valve gear: No. 42841 ex-Horwich works on Bolton shed on 11 September 1955 (Trevor Owen); No. 42899 on up express freight at Appleby West in 1961; No. 42800 on coal mempties leaving Patna in snow; No. 43853 on 16.30 from Chester to Mold via Denbigh at Bodfari on 19 Auguat 1961 (R. Patterson); No. 42904 near Chapel-en-le-Frith with freight on 28 May 1957; No. 42896 in Birmingham New Street on an ordinary passenger train in 1957; No. 42904 at Beauchief on passenger train from Sheffield (P.J. Hughes); No. 42912 at Brownhill Junction with frreight mainly of coal on 24 August 1963 (D. Kerrigan); No. 42829 with Reidinger rotary cam valve gear at Dudley on 17 May 1959; No. 42936 with express head lamps at Birkenhead Woodside with through coaches for Paddington which it would work as far as Chester on 28 March 1962,

Miles Macnair. From road unto rail: exercises in technology transfer - Part three: traction engines, railcars and the Sentinel story. 164-8
Previous part. Due to the Red Flag Act road locomotives became largely limited to agriculture and were produced mainly by firms who specialised in agricultural implements, like ploughs: some of these ventured into the railway locomotives notably  Aveling & Porter of Strood in Kent with their Invicta range. Others mentioned included: Robey, Fowler, Burrell and McLaren. Refers to William Fletcher again and "our foolish and meddlesome laws prohibited sensible speeds" [for steam highway vehicles] Leon Serpollet is also mentioned. Macnair is dismissive of most of the pre-1923 designs to produce steam railcars by 23 of the companies: only those produced by the Great Western, London & North Western and Lancashire & Yorkshire led to practical, lasting vehicles. In 1904 the Peebles Steam Car 659乐彩 imported an advanced steam railcar from Ganz of Hungary which was assembled at the Falcon Works in Loughborough which had been manufacturing steam tramway locomotives. Another geared steam railcar was built by R.Y. Pickering & Co. and was purchased by Colonel  Stephens for the Kent & East Sussex Railway. It seems extraordinary thatt Macnair does not cite Jenkinson and Lane's excellent book on railcars which includes both; although KPJ has failed to give Barry Lane his due as an author. The section on Sentinel is well pressented but adds nothing new. Illustrations: Avelling & Porter locomotive with chain drive based upon  standard traction engine (The Engineer engraving); Aveling & Porter compound 0-4-0WT locomotive loaned to Great North of Scotland Railway shunting in Aberdeen docks; Clayton & Shuttleworth modified traction engine (WN 7776/1867) owned by Hall & Co. of Croydon; Marshall & Sons of Gainsborough WN 6402/1878 wiith underslung cylinders with additions by Pepper & Sons (H.C. Casserley); Foden WN 8360 steamer converted as crude locomotive at Aycliffe Lime and Limestone Ltd (W.A. Briggs) — see also Foden's in Lowe; Kitson & Co, Great Northern Railway railcar No. 6 see also Ivatt locomotives; Ganz railcar see also Rutherford; Alley's standard water tube boiler; LMS No. 7192 with flash boiler and twin Doble engine; Southern Railway Doble engined rail bus on Dyke branch in 1936 with third rail? in 1934 (H.C. Casserley) (Jenkinson and Lane give it extended coverage); Foden solitary locomotive. See also letter from Stephen G. Abbott on page 318

Jeremy Clarke. In praise of the moguls. Part Two. 169-75.
Part 1. The text describes the four LMS designs: the Hughes/Fowler design with steeply inclined cyliners, long travel piston valves and robust Walschaerts valve gear based on Pennsylvania Railroad practice. Fowler's contribution added sundry Derby details including an ill-fitting standard tender. Five were fitted with Lentz rotary cam poppet valve gear in 1931 and this was replaced by the Reidinger version in 1953. Forty more were on order when Stanier arrived and he substituted his own version with taper boiler and horizontal cylinders and a higher boiler pressure and narrower cylinders. The ill-fitting tenders remained and the designn was not multiplied. Ivatt was determined to displace the 0-6-0 and he did this with the Class 2 2-6-0 and the Class 4 2-6-0: the first was a neat design and ha d a matching 2-6-2T companion. The latter was ugly especially with the massive double chimney. The tender cab was more appropriate for the tundra. Lawson Billinton's K class shared tthe Stephenson  motion with the Brighton Atlantics,the driving wheel size with the E5 tanl engine, but had a Belpaire boiler.The Maunsell 2-6-0 design was the N class introduced in 1917, but schemed from 1914 with input from Pearson and Holcroft recruited from Swindon  and Clayton from Derby (but nothing like the Crabs). In the period following WW1 the Government sought to stem unemployment at Woolwich Arsenal by building locomotives thereat and the N class was selected: some ended up on the Southern, but others went elsewhere see article by Alan Jackson, The design spawned a 2-6-4T variant, the notorious River class which derailed at Sevenoaks, and a three-cyliner version, the U1 class. Illustrations: see also front cover and colour photo-feature on the extraordinary Crabs (behind one of which KPJ was given a thrilling descent from Standedge to Huddersfield on Boxing Day 1954): Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 No. 46511 at Three Cocks Junction on Hereford to Brecon on 11 September 1962 (Gavin  Morrison: colour); Hughes No. 2822 with Lentz rotary cam poppet valve gear at Manchester Victoria in May 1936; ex-LBSCR K class No. 32353 on LCGB Sussex Coast Limited Rail Tour on turntable at Bognor Regis on 24 June 1962 (David Idle: colour); Stanier Class 5 No. 2948 leaving Conway Tubular Bridge on 14.35 Bangor to Llandudno Junction (T.J. Edgington); Stanier Class 5 No. 42983 on 07.40 Crewe to Carlislle freight at Shap Wells on 26 May 1952 (T.J. Edgington); N class No. 31811 on 14.00 Woking to Eastleigh freight passing Winchfield on 25 July 1964 (David Idle: colour); Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 No. 46495 aat Kettering on Cambridge train in March 1959 (T.J. Edgington); Ivatt Class  4 No. 3001 in LMS livery leaving Bletchley in 1948 (first vehicle is interesting); U class No. 31635 on 12.35 Reading to Redhill leaving Dorkimg Town on 21 December 1962 (David Idle: colour); Ivatt Class  4 No. 43092 at Peterborough North with train for Midland & Great Northern in May 1957; ex-LBSCR K class No. 2245 working Sunny South Express at Addison Road Kensington in 1932; N class No. 31405 at Ashford shed on 31 March 1957 (T.J. Edgington); U1 class No. 1908 without smoke deflectors and painted sage green.

Monton Green — west of Salford. Alan Tyson. 176-7.
When at school at the top of Weaste Lane we used to run down to the railway bridge to see "what is on the Barrow": Black & white photo-feature: Jubilee Noo. 45563 Australia on 13.40 Mannchester Exchange to  Wiagn  North Western stopping at Monton Green on 2 April 1960; 8F 2-8-0 tender first on local freight passing in Eccles direction; Monton Green station master with his assistant; Stanier Class 4 2-6-4T No. 42439 passing Monton Green on 18.37 Wigan NW to Mancester Exchange on 2 August 1961; Coronation class No. 46232 Duchess of Montrose approaching Monton Green on diverted Birmingham to Glasgow on 5 November 1961; Ivatt Class 2 2-6-2T No. 41283 on 12.05 Manchester Exchange to Kenyon Junction via Tyldesley and Leigh 0n 31 December 1960.

Geoffrey Skelsey. Crossing London: the City Widened Lines and the Thameslink saga. Part Two. 178-83
Part 1. The belated electrification of the Great Northern services to Hertford North and Welwyn Garden City completed on 8 November 1976 left the Wid ened Lines with a residual service from Midland stations to Moorgate operated by diesel multiple units. A Report was instigated in 1972 by tthe Greater London Council, the Department of the Environment and the London Transport Executive under the Chairmanship of Sir David Barran, a senior executive in Shell. This reported in 1974, an iinopportune time due to industrial unrest. The report contained some modest proposals: the extension of the North London Line to Woolwich; rrestoration of the Gospel Oak to Barking service and electrification of the St. Pancras suburban services. It also proposed two west to east crossrail type underground route to channel British Rail services. A line from Paddington to Liverpool Street via Leicester Square and Holborn; and one from Victoria to London Bridge via Green Park, Leicester Square, Blackfriars and Cannon Street. The Midland suburban had been proposed for electrification in the 1930s, was omitted from the 1955 Modernisation Plan, but was aproved in November 1976.following completion of the Great Northern works. The Barran Committee had been lukewar about a suggestion to restore  the Snow Hill link but in 1983/84 a BR/GLC study recommended its restoration with the third rail extended to Farringdon and services via Elephant & Castle and via London Bridge. Illustrations: Thameslink map May 1991; Class 31 with train of empty compartment stock about to join London Transport controlled railways at York Road on 10 September 1976; electric multiple unit for Holborn Viaduct at Blackfriars in March 1980 (dome of St. Paul's just peeping above roof of station; Ludgate Hill with Thameslink train crossing bridge and work on replacement tunnel visible amidst organised chaos on 25 Aprill 1990 (colour); Ludgate Hill station frontage briefly visible before destruction   on 25 April 1990;  King's Cross Midland City station entrance (colour); Thameslink services brochure cover (colour); Farringdon station (colour: competition find the train amidst dazzle camouflage); 700 class arriving Faarrigdon from south in May 2018 (colour); Blackfriars south of the Thames with 700 class unit about to depart (colour). See letter from Michael J. Smith on page 318

Rory Wilson. The Southampton Dock diesels 184-5
Following experiments with existing diesel locomotives including one with hydraulic transmission the Southern Region opted for a Ruston & Hornsby based on Ruston's LSSE type to replace the USA class 0-6-0Ts. Illustrations: No. D2992 at Southampton Royal Pier on 5 January 1961; D2997 at Southampton Ocean Terminal with RMS Queen Mary alongside on 6 December 1964 with small boys everywhere (M.J. Fox). See letter from Ian Benfield on method of delivery from Lincoln.

Rob Langham. Trains across the Gill: Hownes Gill Viaduct 1858-1968. 186-8
The gill (gorge) on the Stanhope & Tyne Railway was crossed by a pair of engine-worked incline planes with the wagons carried on cradles. This was a laborious and slow way of taking limestone down from the quarries near Waskerley to the iron nworks at Consett. Thomas Bouch of the Stockton & Darlington Railway designed a viaduct to cross the gill which is still in situ allthough it has not been used for railway traffic since the 1960s. The engines on the displaced incline were supplied by Robert Stephenson & Co. The viaduct and much iof the former railway is now part of the Sustrans cycle network. Ilustrations: (from Beamish Museum) Derwent Iron Works in Consett in 1857 (engraving?);  Hownes Gill Viaduct with train on it viewed from valley; Stockton & Darlington Railway 0-6-0 Leader; Hownes Gill Viaduct with train on it hauled by Fletcher 901 claass 2-4-0 viewed from valley; top view of viaduct with track in place; 0-6-0 diesel shunter No, D3875 at Waskerley passing former station buildings; K1 No. 62027 running tender first on excursion from Waskerley near Rowley in 1863

Readers' Forum 189

B1 Class. Editor
The caption to No.61251, pictured on p99 of the February issue, gives the LNER director Oliver Bury more enoblement than he was entitled to; he was just plain 'Mr.'

The GS tanks . Gerald Knox
Regarding the caption on p. 10 No.67339 has not arrived bunker first, it was working in the push-pull mode and had pushed from Blyth,

Southern holidays . Philip Shelton
Re caption to top picture on page 35 is not correct. Yes Tor is not the highest point on Dartmoor. It has been officially confirmed that the neighbouring peak of High WiIlhays is two metres higher [but Yes Tor is a slightly better name for a locomotive].

Leith Central. John Macnab,  
An enhancement to the above article (January) is the inclusion in the photographs of staff members at both Leith Central, Craigentinny and Edinburgh Waverley. Long in being given recognition far less in photographic image, it was such as they in their respective roles who made the railways run and those who have followed in their footsteps continue to do so in the present time. Not forgetting the depot/station/yard cats that kept the rodent population in check!
On stock matters dealt with at Leith Central, the 1956 Swindon-built Inter-City DMUs for the Edinburgh and Glasgow services eventually totalled 64 vehicles which included those that had been initially allocated to the WR. They did not become Class 126 as is often recorded, being withdrawn from service as the TOPS classification era dawned. It was the somewhat similar 1959 build from Swindon for Glasgow-Ayrshire services that became Class 126. A caveat perhaps in that four individual E&G coaches were reprieved to work with the 'Ayrshires' becoming, in effect, surrogate 126s
The Gloucester Class 100s given mention, as their duties dwindled in Scotland had upwards of seven units sent to the North Eastern Region in the summer of 1967 to assist in the dieselisation of the North Tyneside electrified services.

Thoughts from inside and outside the box. Stephen G, Abbott
On page 743 (December) the photograph of EMU No.304 014 leaving Kidsgrove must have been taken long before 2008. The unit is in British Rail livery, moreover it was withdrawn in 1994!

Tickets for bathers and curlers. Andrew Kleissner
John Thomas, in Forgotten Railways: Scotland (D&C 1976) states that Loch Leven station on the erstwhile Kinross-shire Railway came into its own when the neighbouring loch was used for bonspiels. He states that the carriages which made up the special trains were mostly composed of first class carriages, with low-sided fish wagons carrying the curling stones (each bearing the name of its owner) trailing behind. The train would stop in section at the closest point to the loch so that the heavy stones could be unloaded, the players then being taken to Loch Leven station to alight. Extra staff were deployed to take down the lineside fencing and each train carried three guards to assist with the handling of the stones.
As far as skinny-dipping is concerned, I was a volunteer 'deviationist' on the Festiniog Railway for a fortnight in 1969. At that time the passenger services terminated at Dduallt and paused for perhaps 30 minutes while the locomotive ran round. Rhoslyn Lake is adjacent to the station and its dark waters were very tempting to two of us on a hot day. Unfortunately a train arrived not long after we had started our dip and so we had to hide ourselves at the edge of the lake, clinging to bushes, until it departed! Shall I say that the warm sunshine was very welcome after our extended sojourn!

Crossing London  Andy Sharples
Re article on Holborn Viaduct station which brought old memories back to me. The frontage was modern for those days but the old station was within. I served as a Catering Manager for British Transport Hotels from 1962 until 1969. As part of my training I was at Holborn Viaduct for a short while and was a griddle chef in the day and a barman at night. I used to have time off between these shifts and we used the old refreshment room used for storage. The other chef and I were in there when we noticed a wooden board fixed to the wall in the kitchen. We pulled it away and there was an metal ladder leading down. We went down and found rooms and an old canteen with tables and forms and a serving area covered in dust undisturbed for years. I don't know its purpose — maybe wartime. We continued down the ladder and eventually found the old station on the goods line under Holborn which was still in use (not the station).and a flight of stairs leading up into the roof, sealed off but obviously the old exit on to the concourse. Further investigation found a lot of old prison cells which we assumed must have been connected to the Old Bailey at some stage.

The stations at Wellingborough. Robin Leleux 
May I add a small architectural snippet to the interesting article (January 乐彩网17500cn) by my long-standing friend Peter Butler who, incidentally, introduced me to the importance of the Midland Railway when I came to live in Wellingborough in 1971! In September 1898 an unattended parcels trolley on Wellingborough's down platform rolled across and tipped on to the track. Frantic efforts to move it into the six foot before the Manchester express roared through were in vain. The locomotive hit it at speed, derailing the leading bogie, then the whole train came to grief on pointwork at the north end of the station. Five passengers and the locomotive crew died. In his subsequent report Lt.- Col. Yorke, the Board of Trade Inspector, recommended that in future station platforms should at least be level or preferably slope away from the track, to deter errant trolleys from tipping over the edge. The backwards slope on Wellingborough's down platform is still most marked.

Electrifying Merseyside. Trefor Davies
Re photograph at bottom of p692 (November 2019 issue) it is not Seaforth Sands station, but Seaforth and Litherland, approximately one mile east,the northern terminus and connecting station for the Liverpool-Southport line. The Overhead train is on the up relief line with Seaforth South 659乐彩 signal cleared for its return journey. The line to Seaforth Sands curves off to the right behind the terraced houses and the next signal box was Rimrose Road junction. This signal box only opened for the Grand National Race meeting each year and allowed Overhead trains access to Aintree via North Mersey Branch junction at Linacre Road.
Seaforth and Litherland was my local station up to getting married in 1966 and I started my railway career at the next station, Marsh Lane and Strand Road, now renamed Bootle New Strand. The photograph brings back happy memories, as a boy, of trips with my father into Liverpool on the Overhead viewing ships in the docks.

Goole's railways 1836-1910 . Mike G. Fell
Re article by Jeffrey Wells in the January issue: this was of great interest and I am most grateful for the generous mentions of my modest contributions. The caption to the photograph at the bottom of page 28 is not quite right. The vessel shown is certainly the steamship Rother but at the time the photograph was taken she clearly did not have a white hull! The mud in the foreground is the north bank of the Dutch River at low water and the ship is in No. 2 Drydock, off South Dock. The view looks north west and to the extreme left of the photograph in the distance can be seen the unmistakable outline of the 'pepper pot' water tower but its companion the 'salt pot' water tower, completed in 1927, is not apparent. Behind the ship is No.5 compartment boat hoist and its accumulator tower. This hoist was moved from West Dock in 1924 and in the image it is not complete, so the picture must date between 1924 and 1927. It was customary for ships on the Copenhagen trade, carrying bacon and butter, to have white painted hulls but Rother was probably not employed on the Danish route at the time of the photograph. Other photographs do exist of the ship sporting a white hull.

From road unto rail. Bob Baird
Re Part 1 of Miles MacNair article 'From Road Unto Rail — Exercises in Technology Transfer'. In the introduction mention is made that "Popular history states that Trevithick then went on to build his first steam 'railway' locomotive for the Penydarren tramroad in 1804." I thought that I may be able to add some information in this regard.
I have in my possession a first edition copy, 1889, of The Working and Management of an English Railway by George Findlay, Lieut-Col. Engineer and Railway Volunteer, Staff Corps; Assoe. Inst. Civil Engineers; General Manager of the London & North Western Railway. In the frontispiece to the book there is a handwritten note by one Chas. Russell James of Merthyr Tydfil, who apparently gifted the book to a George Schultz on 7 October 1901. The note reads:
"The lst locomotive engine that ever ran on rails was Trevithick's & it ran on the tram road line at the back of Professional Row, Church St., Merthyr Tydfil where I was born. It had a brick built chimney and at one point of the line there was a tunnel. I have heard my father relate the story that his uncle Christopher James (father of the late Lord justice james) made a bet of a dozen of wine (he was a wine merchant) that the engine would not go beyond a certain point (that point being the entrance to the tunnel). The bet was made and was won by my Great Uncle Christopher who, shrewd man that he was, felt convinced, as it actually turned out, that the brick chimney was too high to pass under the roof of the tunnel."
This note has a postscript which reads: "see plate facing p. 123. I remember open 3rd class carriages on the Taff Vale Ry line when I was a child. the 2nd class carriages then on that line had no cushions to them. The train at Navigation was attached to a rope & let down a steep incline by a stationary engine & so drawn up — until a bad accident happened & the incline was done away with by going round a curve lessing the steepness of the descent CRJ"

Marylebone collisions. Den Sullivan 
Re enquiry by Doug Landau about Driver Simpson's fatal accident (Readers' Forum. February), I was a fireman at Neasden from April 1953 to May 1958. On 7 August 1955 Driver Simpson was driving a V2 locomotive on the return trip to Marylebone from Leicester. There was single line working at Barby sidings with a speed restriction. The train was reported to have entered the crossover at about 50mph and overturned, killing Simpson and injuring his fireman and a number of passengers. As a very young fireman, I worked for a week with Charlie Simpson on the Marylebone pilot and he was a very patient and kind driver, especially with young inexperienced firemen. A full report of the accident can be found on Google, Great Central Accidents, Barby sidings.

More mixed freight . David Monk-Steel
I was pleased to see more of David Idle's fine pictures in the February Backtrack. I believe I can add a little more commentary to them. The picture of 9F 2-10-0 No.92039 on a train of tank wagons is particularly interesting because it shows not oil tanks but a block load of the unusual APCM cement 'Cemflo' wagons which were introduced between 1961 and 1966 initially for cement traffic from Cliffe cement works in Kent and Uddingston near Glasgow. The train will probably be the 02.05 Uddingston to Cliffe return empties which has a brake van at either end so that it can reverse at Canonbury in either direction. The outward loaded train also had a brake van at both ends. In later years the train conveyed privately owned pallet vans of bagged cement as well. What is even more interesting in this picture is the use of a steam locomotive, because this working was usually rostered a pair of SR BRCW Type 3 diesel locomotives to York from where a Eastern Region Type 4 diesel locomotive would take it forward to Scotland. The SR locomotives would then return with the empties, as seen here. The 'Cernflo' type was notorious for rough riding and it was these wagons which derailed at Thirsk where they were run in to by DP2 hauling an express passenger train.
In the lower picture of the 'Black 5' near Carnforth the leading van is certainly a banana van, an early BR design with vertical matchboard planked sides which, judging by the similarity of advertising labels on the other leading vans behind it, may also be banana vans of a later design.

Book Reviews .. 190

Sunderland's Railways Neil T. Sinclair. Oakwood Press, 124pp. 185 illustrations. Reviewed by MGF (Mike Fell) ***
This book forms part of the Oakwood Library of Railway History (No .. 163) and benefits greatly from the new larger format adopted following the acquisition of  the Oakwood Press by Stenlake Publishing. The Preface establishes that Sunderland's Railways is a successor to the author's Railways of Sunderland first published by the Tyne and Wear Museum Service in 1985, with a second edition appearing the following year. The author tells us that his new book includes the significant changes that have taken place since 1986, including the end of coal traffic from Wearside and the extension of the Tyne and Wear Metro to the City of Sunderland. The sections on wagonways and early railways also incorporate recent research, especially that undertaken by Colin E. Mountford whose books are listed under Further Reading.
About 20% of the illustrations feature scenes post-1986. The images portray an eclectic mix of main line and industrial railways and well demonstrate the author's passion for his subject. In addition there are eight very useful maps and plans. Many of the images were captured by Sunderland railway photographer lan S. Carr who died in 2015. I visited the area in July 1967 and spent a week photographing the last remaining BR steam operations and steam locomotives at many of the industrial locations and so, for me, many of the images provided a reminder of that very enjoyable and now nostalgic occasion. I am certain that will also be the case for many others who made similar pilgrimages.
The book is a very readable and concise summary of the history of the industrial and mainline railways within the present day boundary of the City of Sunderland, including short sections of line that leave the city boundaries and then re-enter them. The sections dealing with wagonways and early railways are particularly strong. The Railway King George Hudson (1800-1871) was Member of Parliament for Sunderland from 1845 until 1859.
The author, quite rightly, emphasises that Hudson made a major contribution to railway and dock development at Sunderland and remained popular with the local electorate well after his dramatic demise from the national railway scene. He was chairman of the Sunderland Dock 659乐彩 and Hudson Dock opened in 1850 is still so named today, under the control of the Port of Sunderland Authority.
The book has two main parts - a general history and a summary of the railways covered on a line by line basis. The two parts are interspersed with a section covering railway staff in which I was pleased to see mention of Denny Harrison (now Denny Harrison Lincoln) one-time signal women at Monkwearmouth, who ended her railway signaling days at Brough East on the Hull to Selby line. I recorded her fascinating career in the Stephenson Locomotive Society Journal for January/ February 2014 (VoI.90, No.885).
A minor criticism for me, perhaps because I have a maritime background, is that I would have liked to have seen more about the operational interface between the railways and shipping, although to be fair, the North and South Docks, the Wearmouth Staiths and the Lambton and Hetton Staiths all get a brief mention. The book is not a definitive history of Sunderland's railways but it is a must for everyone with an interest in those railways whether they are of an industrial or main line persuasion, or both. For those unfamiliar with the area seeking to learn more about it, the book forms an excellent introduction and points to where more detailed information can be found.

The LNWR 42ft Carriages of Richard Bore. Richard Ball and Peter Chatham. LNWR Society. Soft cover, spiral bound A4 landscape. 50pp. Reviewed by BCL [Barry Lane ****
Richard Bore was the Carriage Superintent of the LNWR for 25 years from 1860 when he established the new carriage works at Wolverton in 1865. The style of body work that culminated in the familiar style of the company was set from thence on with six-wheeled stock entering service in the late 1860s followed by radial eight-wheelers in the 1880s. The book deals with the 42ft radial carriages built by Bore between 1882 and 1885 and is most comprehensive in detail with numerous scale drawings and illustrations. The main drawings are to 6mm to foot scale which is as large as the format would allow but most diagrams and plans are 4mm scale with just a few 3mm. The book is a boon for modellers despite the odd scale of the highly detailed main drawings.
This reviewer has modelled examples of these vehicles and can only wish that all the information published here had been available when he approached the subject. Only 180 of the 42ft carriages (which included Sleeping Saloons and 'Irish Mail') were built in Bore's final final years before Charles Park replaced him but much of the stock remained in service through to the grouping, albeit on bogies by then. This book complements previous volumes on LNWR carriage stock from members of the Society and is an invaluable assett to the subject. I only wish that it had been properley bound and larger rather than spiral bound. This excellent presentation will be an assett to anyone with half an interest in the subject. Highly recommended.

The remarkable Jim Crebbin and his experimental locomotives Roger Backhouse. Society of Model and Experimental Engineers. 82pp. 47 Illustrations. Revieweed by RHG *****
'Uncle  Jim' Crebbin was a well known early twentieth century model engineer (1875-1950) experimenting with locomotives to develop ideas about miniature engine design. His locomotive Cosmo Bonsor features in an exhibition currently at the National Railway Museum, York, from September 2019, moving to the Science Museum London in Spring 乐彩网17500cn,called 'Brass, Steam and Fire'.
The author is right to describe Jim Crebbin as remarkable! He worked as a clerk in the Bank of England and produced a series of competent miniature steam locomotives which became well known and well loved. However, for me as a life-long model engineer with a passion for steam locomotives, I became amazed as I read the book as to how influential this man was in and around the full-size railway as well as being a key player in the early days of the Society of Model and Experimental Engineers.
The book is a proper piece of scholarly research with extensive referencing at the end of each of the three chapters, and of course many of those references are sourced from within the pages of the magazine Model Engineer which is the journal founded in the early days of the Society of Model and Experimental Engineers. I commend the author's thoroughness in getting so much information together into what I found to be an enjoyable and informative read but I still found I had lots of questions about Jim Crebbin that needed answers. He counted H.N.Gresley, William Stanier G.J. Churchward, Sir Felix Pole and Harry Ricardo amongst his friends and seemed to have their ear with his opinions about compounding and other relevant steam locomotive topics even though he was not formally educated in engineering matters. His closeness to the great early twentieth century railway engineers puzzles both the author and the reader and we are left to speculate how Jim Crebbin was so obviously highly regarded and trusted amongst those great men. (It is tempting to wonder if his letters written on Bank of England notepaper had a bearing on his influence!)
In all the photographs Jim Crebbin always is dressed immaculately and in one image he is working in his workshop with the locomotive on the bench on its side and the owner is wearing a smart shirt, waistcoat and tie, but at least we can see that his hands were slightly grubby! At first I was sceptical at the possibility that Jim Crebbin was actually adopting a truly experimental approach to his work or whether he was just dabbling in his hobby, It would be beneficial to the reader if more of his experiments had been written up scientifically rather than just the bland statements we get from Jim Crebbin's summarisations. However, there is a photograph towards the end of the book which shows one of his locomotive models at speed being tested on the miniature test plant that he created to emulate the Swindon Locomotive Test Plant. The reader is left in no doubt studying that photograph that this steam locomotive testing was serious business and perhaps it was no wonder that Churchward paid so much attention to him and his views on compounding.
One minor niggle: on page 60 the author shows an image of a "lifting injector on Jim Crebbin's locomotive Conversion". The injector shown is a conventional non- lifting injector which is fed by water from the tender and does not need to lift water from a tank below the injector. Also I would like to add an an observation. Crebbin was interested in the sure-footedness of GWR locomotives compared with Southern types. He might have been fascinated to learn that one of the reasons why Churchward's locomotives were so sure-footed was that the tender drawbar was always positioned higher at the front than the rear so that the resultant force when pulling away with a heavy train added extra adhesive weight to the rear of the locomotive thus improving the adhesion. I wonder if Churchward shared that with 'Uncle  Jim'? A great book for model engineers and railway enthusiasts to enjoy and learn from.

The Yorkshire Lines of the LNWR. Neil Fraser, Oakwood Press, softback, 208 pp.. Reviewed by DJ. ***
This book has had protracted origins. Its author Neil Fraser died in 2001 having seen Oakwood Press publish his first work Hillhouse immortals — the story of a London & North Western Railway engine shed. It reflected his lifelong interest in Huddersfield, which was at the centre of a second manuscript that was incomplete at the time of his death. His daughter Rowena Kidger worked with the late Dr. Graham Hardy to finalise The Yorkshire Lines of the LNWR and it was duly dispatched to Oakwood in 2002. In her own words, it then lay dormant and she 'lost hope of it ever being published'. Only when Oakwood was sold to Stenlake in 2016 has it finally appeared in print. So has it been worth the long wait? There is clear definition of the Yorkshire Lines, which essentially were formed in 1847 when two companies were absorbed by the LNWR. These were the Leeds, Dewsbury & Manchester Railway and a concern blessed with the more long-winded title of the Huddersfield & Manchester Railway & Canal 659乐彩. Becoming part of the LNWR North Eastern Division in 1857, this important cross-country artery forms the prime content along with the tangled saga of the quarter share in Leeds Central station. Also included is the Leeds New Line, not finally opened until 1900 and forming a much needed relief route as well as serving Spen Valley textile towns.
Coverage is wholly and perhaps excessively chronological. Chapters look at successive decades through the high noon of the Victorian age and year-by-year from 1876 to 1913 before taking a broader overview of the periods post World War I, the era of the 'Big Four' and nationalisation. Within this framework, the text concentrates by date on specific happenings such as Acts of Parliament, openings, changes in services and numerous accidents. Many readers will miss a broader overview of the unquestionable magnificence of Huddersfield station, or the challenges in building Standedge Tunnel destined at 3 miles 66 yards to remain the longest in Britain for almost 40 years until finally eclipsed by the Severn. A list of references or further reading would have helped those wishing to know more.
The photographs are a mixed bunch but there are some excellent maps. In order to be reproduced at a sensible size, a series of six pairs depict developments north and south of the main line from 1835 through to post-grouping and the loss of local passenger services. A general map conveys how the short branch from Batley to Birstall formed part of a LNWR bid to reach Bradford, and similarly shows that the Kirkburton branch had Barnsley in mind as the ultimate goal. Although the text stops at 2000, a map of the network in 2019 has been added.

All clear through Bincombe Tunnel. David Idle. rear cover
BR Standard class 4 2-6-0 No. 76026 and BR Standard class 5 4-6-0 head Dorset Coast Express en route for Bournemouth into tunnel on 7 May 1967

The prototype English Electric
Deltic at Doncaster station on 23rd
July 1960. (Colour-Rail.com 207358)
April (Number 348)

The Standard Class 2 2-6-0s. 196-7.
Colour photo-feature: No. 78049 with newly painted Gresley corridor brake composite at St. Boswells (Kelso see p. 365) with service to Berwick-upon-Tweed on 20 Joly 1963 (J.S. Gilks); No. 78036 leaving Hellifield on train for Lancaster and Morecambe on 26 January 1963 (Gavin Morrison); No. 78013 with cut down cab for running to Leicester West shunting oil tank wagons at Glenfield in September 1965; No. 78003 near Carno whilst climbing to Tallerddig with school train from Machynlleth in 1962 (J. Davenport); No. 78000 arriving Newbridge-on-Wye from Moat Lane on 18 July 1959 (G,H. Hunt)

Roger Griffiths and John Hooper. Scarborough engine shed and its locomotives. Part two. 198-207.
Much tabulated information: Locomotive allocations from 1 January 1923 until closure. Shed visits on 7 October 1948; 22 April 1950; 2 August 1951; 3 July 1955; 12 September 1957; 4 august 1960; 7 July 1962. Obserevations of passenger train departures on Saturday 27 July 1952 from 18.00 and on Whit Monday 6 June 1960 from 15.53. Part one. 112-19. Illustrations: B1 4-6-0 No. 61015 Duiker on express departure (Ron Hodge); shed scene on Saturday 24 July 1954 with Ivatt Class 4 2-6-0 No. 43976, B1 No. 61306, B1 No. 61015 Duiker, D49 No. 62751 The Albrighton with a total of at least seven locomotives (R.F. Payne); A8 Nos. 69878 and 69886 and D49 No. 62770 The Puckeridge outside shed on 23 July 1955 (Ron Hodge); view from coaling stage looking towards turntable during its reneewal in 1953 (N.W. Skinner); new  turntable  with Class 4 2-6-0 No. 76046 being turned on 12 June 1954 (N.W. Skinner); Jubilee class 4-6-0 No. 45705 Seahorse on 25 May 1952 at which time it was the normal motive power for 07.31 Greenfield to Manchester Exchange (N.W. Skinner); demolition of east side of shed on 19 September 1959 (N.W. Skinner); Jinty 3F 0-6-0T No. 47403 in steam outside shed on 14 August 1959 (N.W. Skinner); A8 No. 69886 about to enter tunnel to Gallows Close with freight with Glasshoughton nine-plank mineral wagon (Ron Hodge); D20 No. 62384 and D49 on short express in early 1950s (Ron Hodge); Class 3 2-6-0 No. 77004 and D49 Nos. 62703 Hertfordshie and 62751 The Albrighton on Saturday 24 July 1954 (Ron Hodge); 9F 2-10-0 No. 92058 taking water at shed on 23 July 1960 (N.W. Skinner); Britannia class 4-6-2 No. 70034 Thomas Hardy on 1 September 1961 (N.W. Skinner); Stanier Class 3 2-6-2T No. 40117 in storagr with nameplate off A2/3 No. 60518 Tehran (N.W. Skinner); A3 No. 60038 Firdaussi on 22 June 1963; B1 No. 61166 arriving with excursion (Ron Hodge); No. 46229 Duchess of Hamilton on turntable in 1981 in preparation for the Scarborough Spa Express.

Clive Baker. 'A Holiday All The Way'. [Golden Rail Holiday to Inverness in 1984]. 208-12
Travel began at Burton upon Trent on late-running and over-filled Derby to Birmingham formed of a Class 120 Cross Country diesel multiple unit which did manage to connect into the 11.11 departure of The Clansman for Inverness hauled by Class 87 No. 87 009 City of Birmingham to Mossend Yard where a Class 47/4 took over with an extra vehicle (a sleeping car required for an up service). A slow climb to Druimuachdar Summit was caused by the extra vehicle, but The Clansman still managed to arrive at Welsh's Bridge Junction ahead of time, but problems with an Aberdeen-bound train in Platform 2 caused a delay of some thirty minutes. Whilst in Aberdeen a high speed train arrived from King's Cross as a prelude to the Highland Chieftain service, They travelled to Kyle of Lochalsh and on the Far North line as far as Invershin. At that time diesel locomotives were the motive power on these lines. Illustrations (all by author): Culloden Viaduct with pair of Class 20 locomotives crossing with Inverness to Perth cement train; map of Inverness station; Class 47 No. 47 120 with train of XP64 rolling stock leaving Inverness; Rose Street Junction with Class 47 with two cement wagons; Class 26 with passenger train for Inverness at Kyle of Lochalsh; Class 37 No.  37 017 leaving Garve for Kyle of Lochalsh; pn passenger train; Invergordon station looking towards Cromarty Firth

Robin Barnes. Thoughts on Scottish coal. Part one. 213-17.
As ever the delightful eccentric artist begins not in Lanarkshire, but at Brora in remotest Sutherland where the only British Jurassic coalfield is situated (all other British coalfields are from the Carboniferous period.  Illustrations: Manning Wardle WN 579/1875 of 20-inch gauge Brora Colliery tramway (painting by Robin Barnes); plan of railways & tramways at Brora; Blairhall Colliery near Oakley on 7 October 1967 (colour); Thornton engine shed with J37 No. 64570, WD No. 90444 \nd B1 No. 61029 Chamois with coaling tower and colliery winding towers designed by Egon Riss, NCB architect, on 8eptember 1966 (colour); ex-Caledonian Railway 0-6-0T BR No.56250 as Wemyss Private Railway No. 21 (painting?); former 4ft 4in gauge Fordell Railway Fordell as NCB No. 54 (Barclay WN 901/1901) at Cowdenbeath No. 7 Colliery on 7 October 1965; 0-4-0WT (Hawthorns of Leith WN 244/1861) at the Scottish Railway Preservation Society in Falkirk on 15 June 1968 (similar to Fordell Railway first locomotive). Part 2 see page 360

Alistair F. Nisbet. Railwaymen charged with culpable homicide. 218-23.
On 11 January 1842 Lord Moncrieff found James Boyd not guilty of the culpable homicide of a deaf woman who was crossing the Dundee & Arbroath Railway at Westhaven: Boyd had been driving a train from Arbroath to Dundee which conveyed mail and demanded a reasonable speed; further the stationmaster at Carnoustie not to cross the railway at Westhaven. An accident at Forfar on 24 June 1851 in which a freight train from Perth ran into the rear of an excursion to Aberdeen which had halted at Forfar showed that most of the staff involved had no clear idea of how the railway should be operated and several of them were charged: Cumming Jamieson (station master), William MacKay (driver of the freight) and David Morrison (pointsman). Lord Justice Clerk found them not guilty. There was a collision at Portobello on 8 October 1852 which led to a trial on 24 March 1888.

'Deltic dawn. 224-5.
Colour photo-feature of prototype English Electric Deltic diesel electric locomotive in its distinctive blue livery with built-in headlamp and chevrons on its front bonnets: passing Ordsall near Retford in June 1960 (P. Hughes); at King's Cross on down White Rose on 2 August 1959; heading through Liichfield in September 1958 (E.S. Russell); being shunted by BRCW Type 2 diesel No. D5316 at Hornsey motive power depot in November 1959; passing Brookman's Park on 30 April 1960 (Trevor Owen):

Terminus. George Watson. 226-7
Colour photo-feature: Swansea Victoria with BR Class 5 No. 73026 with express headlamps on 12.25 to York on 2 July 1963; Ivatt Class 4 2-6-0 No. 43130 on first leg to Leeds of Devonian for Pagnton waiting departure from Bradford Forster Square on 2 April 1965; Caledonian Railway 4-2-2 No. 123 at Silloth with raiktour on 13 June 1964; Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 No. 46468 at Ballachulish with 08.42 ex-Oban on 29 June 1961; Morecambe Promenade with Class 5 4-6-0 No. 44958 with express headlamps on 14.00 to Bradford Forster Square on 6 August 1966; preserved Highland Railway Jones Goods No. 103 in Inverness on Highland Railway Centenary special to Forres on 26 August 1965.

Mike Fenton, The 'Dandy' line. Part one [Brampton Town branch in Cumberland]. 228-34
Bampton is an important town in East Cumberland, but had to be content with having a station called Bampton Junction on the early Newcastle & Carlisle Railway for much of that railway's existence. Cites John N. Charters' The Brampton Railway which commands Lindisfarne Gospel prices via ABEBOOKS and notes a foreword by William Stobbart whose grandfather drove the trains. For a time an irregular (in the legal sense) passenger service operated on a line built to serve the local collieries which met the Newcastle & Carlisle line near Milton alias Bampton Junction. This line was steeply graded (1 in 40) and was worked by horses. The Newcastle & Carlisle follows an obvious, yet remarkably difficult route for an early main line: the approach to the summit from Newcastle gets progressively more difficult and the descent to the Solway is worse and would have been worst still if it had deviated to serve the town of Bampton which lies in a hollow. Dandie Dinmont was a Neilson outside cylinder 0-4-0T which hauled passenger trains between xxxx and xxxx. Illustrations: Dandie Dinmont with three coaches at the Brampton staithe; Dandie Dinmont with two coaches at the Brampton coal staithe and Stobbart on the cab;  Part 2 see page 310. See also letter from Chris Mills.

Great Eastern travels. John Edgington Collection..235-7
Black & white photo-feature: Liverpool Street terminus (country end) with B12/3 on express possibly for Cambridge line, B1 No. 1046 also with express headcode discs, B12 No. 1564 and part of LNER tender lettered LNER and painted green c1948 (nuch smoke!); Oakington level crossing and station on St. Ives tp Cambridge line c1900; B17 4-6-0 No. 61669 Barnsley on 12.10 Yarmouth (South Town) to Liverpool Street at Beccles with F5 2-4-2T No. 67199 on 12.34 push & pull (in this case aabout to propel the service to Yarmourth; N7 0-6-2T No. 916 arriving Custom House with train for Stratford on 1 September 1934; Saxmundham staion forecourt on 19 July 1952; D16.3 No. 62510 on 14.00 from Norwich at Yarmouth Vauxhall with full load of passengers on Whit Monday 7 June 1954 (attire of passengers is noteworthy); N7 No, 696446 at North Woolwich on 18.10 to Stratford on 10 May 1962; B17 No. 61639 Norwich City at Marks Tey with train from Cambridge  to Colchesster with Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 behind in April 1956 (Oh that former had been preserved rather than an absurd number of latter)

L.A. Summers. The splendour that was the single-wheeler. Part two. 238
Part one.
The later 4-2-2 singles  included the oil-fired Holden locomotives which enjoyed a spell of glory hauling the Cromer expresses non-stop from Liverpool Street to North Walsham to convey the super-rich to their holiday 659乐彩s. Naturally Summers argues that this was a Swindon design. The Worsdell 4-2-2 designs were built as two-cylinder compounds and were later converted to singles. In both forms they were capable of high speed and were capable of hauling substantial trains on the  East Coast main line. Both the Ivatt Great Northern and even later Pollitt designs are criticised for being out-of-date in concept, although the Great Central design was very powerful,Illustrations: projected Adams LSWR 4-2-2 8-ft single of 1893 (colour computer image based upon on  drawing in D.L. Bradley's  Locomotives of the LSWR, 1878-1922 (KPJ: suspect that this is a muddled citation); T.W. Worsdell 7-ft 7-in two-cylinder compond 4-2-2 No. 1517 of 1889; Wilson Worsdell rebuild as simplre 4-2-2 No. 1531 and 1519 (with open smokebox door); Holden oil-fired 4-2-2 No. 10 (coloured photograph); Holden oil-fired 4-2-2 No. 14 being fueled; Holden coal-fired 4-2-2 No. 12 with extended smokebox; Ivatt Great Northern 4-2-2 No. 266; Great Central 4-2-2 No. 967 and No. 969 (latter with larger boiler); Beyer Peacock 4-2-2 on Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway and Kerr Stuart 4-2-2 for Shanghai & Nanking Railway of 1910 (computer image)

Tony Higgs. A Wartime Saturday on the North Warwickshire Line.  245-7
On 17 April 1943 Inspector Bill Gillett was scheduled to travel on two retun trips from Morr Street to Stratford-upon-Avon. on the first Driver Richard  Davies was in charge of No. 4118 which lost time especially at The Lakes Halt where tickets had to be checked.Illustrations: Inspector Bill Gillett with Chief Inspector Wilf Mawle at retirement of latter in 1962; Moor Street in 1949 with bunker-first 2-6-2T on train for North Warwickshire Line; Henley-in-Arden with 51XX arriving from Birmingham and No. 4116 on train from Stratford on 22 April 1957; No. 4170 at Earlswood Lakes with Stratford to Birmingham train in April 1957; No. 5166 leaving Stratford-upon-Avon for Birmingham on 21 April 1957 (R.C. Riley)

This is what it says. 248-9
Colour photo-feature of station names: Stalybridge (BR enamel sign in LMR maroon) with gas light on 13 September 1971 (Mike G. Fell); Appleford Halt sign giving intruction to buy tickets at Post Office; Wantage Tramway 659乐彩 ownership cut into stone above office (Paul Joyce); LSWR Queen's Road station cut into brickwork photographed on 24 August 1991 (Paul Joyce);

Jeffrey Wells. The accident at Dog Kennel Bridge. 250-2

Book Reviews. 253..

The railway haters: opposition to railways from the 19th to 21st centuries. David Brandon and Alan Brooke. Pen & Sword Books 2019 416 pp. Reviewed by Geoffrey Skelsey *****
Today's tourists, visiting Stamford, will find a charming example of a settled and picturesque townscape, built in mellow stone and with few intrusive signs of the last century's debased tastes. That it is so pleasant is a direct consequence of one of the topics of this outstanding new book: in short, without the opposition of landed proprietors, and the consequential siting of the Great Northern line to the east, Stamford might have become Peterborough. Instead it was left high and dry, and 'unspoiled'. Brought up, as we have been, on near-universal vilification of Richard Beeching (who didn't hate railways, as it happens) it is easy to lapse into a belief that abhorrence of railways is a modern phenomenon, engendered by deceitful politicians and influential dark forces, but in this book we find a comprehensive and well-argued account of successive waves of hostility, arising from the preoccupations of each successive age.
The treatment is broadly chronological, with themes relating to each era of railway history. Thus, we have at the start the powerful and largely self-interested opposition of some (but not all) feudal gentry, nearing the end of their long dominance, a process facilitated by the railways themselves. This was 'nimbyism' on a huge scale and cost the industry dearly, in terms of land purchase and construction costs. Then later came an almost converse assault, from those appalled, for example, by the treatment of third class passengers as well as the ever-present risk of accidents, successfully campaigning for appropriate regulation in what had been a laissez-faire era. Some critics abhorred monopolies which led to poor service and high fares ('sounds familiar!'), but others deplored the over-building of competing lines. Not all the fault-fmders were haters of railways as such, but like their descendants today some believed there to be readily at hand, if only the managers listened, elementary solutions to complex and intrinsic problems. Amongst jejune commentators there later came those such as Brigadier T. I. Lloyd and Sir Alfred Sherman with their enticing prospect of converting railways into motor roads, which when tested in actual instances proved to be illusory. The current eloquent controversies over the route, and even the existence, of HS2 could, with a little linguistic amendment, have been written in the 1840s.
The authors bring a wealth of related detail, including aspects of the arts, literature, Parliamentary affairs, trade unionism and Sunday observance. A useful chapter explains the processes involved in promoting a railway. Slightly oddly given the title, although effective in the context, the book also considers positive support for the railways, so marked in recent years to the extent that the public now urge rebuilding of lines in the Peak District and Lakeland whose original construction was passionately decried by campaigners. By and large, in time, the good ideas prevailed, though nothing could overcome the problems caused by railways which formed a haphazard network, not a coherent system, as the authors astutely put it.
The narrative is light and readable with welcome shafts of humour. Particularly interesting is the parade of almost soap opera-like demonic characters such as Dionysius Lardner (described by Dickens as "the prince of humbug") and Colonel Charles Sibthorpe, an almost unhinged adversary who believed that all railways were "public frauds and private robberies" and for nearly 30 years waged Parliamentary war against them: he was, the authors memorably say, "a latter-day Don Quixote tilting not at windmills but at locomotives". The book's anecdotes include many new to your reviewer and there are interesting illustrations in the text, including contemporary cartoons which then, as now, exemplified the common attitudes of thinking folk. A good bibliography is accompanied by extensive source notes. This is a substantial and thoughtful book which opens up new topics of study and perhaps its most important message is that controversies of the distant past still resonate today.

Midland Railway outpost Lancaster-Morecambe-Heysham. Martin Bairstow. Willowherb Publishing. A5 landscape, hardback. 112pp. Reviewed by Michael Blakemoor ****
Picture albums of variable quality come and go, but Willowherb has produced some good colour ones and this is another. The Lancaster-Morecambe-Heysham line is, perhaps, a short one to be the subject of its own such book but its significance is that in 1908 it became one of the electrification pioneers when the Midland Railway institued an service using a 6,600V ac overhead system. Sadly this had gone, it seems, before colour photography had captiured these electric cars and in 1951 the system was abandoned, but in 1953 the line was re-electrified by BR using converted ex-LNWR third rail vehicles as a test bed for the high voltage ac overhead system which was to become the standard we know today. Fortunately they are able to feature prominently.
However, there is more to this album than just the section identified in the title. Covering begins at the erstwhile junction station at Wennington where the line to Carnforth diverged from the direct route to Morecambe which closed, with the electric service, in 1966. However, through trains from Leeds produced serious motive power, one fine shot depicting a 'Peak' with six coaches and two parcels vans, passing a sign at Halton listing the tolls over the railway-owned toll bridge across the River Lune. Carnforth is featured and the importance and generous provision of the Morecambe Promenade station is clearly shown, as is that at Heysham, once the MR's port for Ireland. Branch lines pictured include the Glasson Dock branch from Lancaster, one view showing an Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 apparently stranded rail-less in completely overgrown siding just before closure. Motive power is the expected LMS steam and BR diesel types; a brief mention might be made of one of the odd and unsuccessful Metro-Vie Co- Bos — before moving on.
There is a splendid selection of photographs featuring the steamers from Heysham on the Irish and Isle of Man sailings, my choice being a splendid shot of no fewer than seven turbine steamers at Douglas having crossed to the IOM from English, Welsh, Irish and Scottish ports. Morecambe is still rail served, just, with a new two-platform basic station having replaced the Midland's multi-platform Promenade; it suffices for what in recent times has often been no more than a two-car 'Pacer'. The LNWR once had its own station there, Euston Road, as well! Heysham as a port is still busy but the railway plays very little part in its traffic. This is a quality production by the author, the publisher and the Amadeus Press.

The Diary of Thomas Baron 1855-1862. Edward Talbot. LNWR Society. 134 pages. paperback. Reviewed by AD. *****
Ted Talbot is a stalwart of the LNWR Society and a recognised expert on all things LNWR, especially its locomotives. He is the author or co-author of several well-received studies on the LNWR including LNWR Liveries, An Illustrated History of LNWR Engines and LNWR Miscellany 1 and 2. His most recent book has been published by the LNWR Society in lavish colour and presents the diary of an early LNWR engineman Thomas Baron.
Baron (1835-1910) scrupulously kept his diary from 1855 to 1862 and recorded every footplate turn he made; noting the date, driver, locomotive, destination and miles run. In this respect it is a unique record of mid-nineteenth century locomotive working. Ted Talbot fleshes out this record with a running commentary noting the type of locomotive worked and useful snippets of information from working timetables, train names, or industries served by the LNWR. Included too is the Abergavenny line upon which Baron was involved with the construction eventually moving to that Welsh town as a driver.
There are contributions by Harry Jack including a short biography of Baron and a discussion of the various locomotives he worked including 'Ballast Engine No.14' on 6 June 1857 on an 184-mile run to Carlisle. No.14 was later sold to the Mersey Docks & Harbour Board in May 1859 and is better known in preservation as Lion, aka the Titfield Thunderbolt. Michael Bentley provides a former footplateman's point of view on Baron's diary and there are concluding sections reproduced from Michael Reynolds's Engine Driving Life, including the touching story of Snatchberry the faithful hound.
There are three paintings in the text by railway artist Gerald Broom GRA and a fourth can be found on the rear cover. The book is lavishly illustrated with Victorian monochrome photographs of LNWR locomotives printed at full page and accompanied by extended captions. The detail of these photographs is stunning thanks to high quality printing and paper. They can be studied for hours and are worth the cover price alone. A section of colour plates of the gauge 1 models of David Viewing give a flavour of how colourful LNWR locomotives and rolling stock were when Baron was at work. The only gremlin is that the image for plate 73 is incorrect and depicts a vehicle from 1857, rather than the 1830s. It is hope this error will be corrected in a second edition. There is also a section of colour plates of preserved LNWR 'Crewe' type Columbine.
Altogether this is a high quality production and a 'must have' for anyone interested in the working of the mid- Victorian railway, not just aficionados of the LNWR. Talbot has done an excellent job of taking what could be a very dry subject — columns of dates, destinations, and locomotives - and added the human touch and contemporary colour which brings the life and times of Thomas Baron to life. Ted Talbot and the LNWR Society are to be applauded for reproducing this unique glimpse into working on the Victorian railway.
The Diary of Thomas Baron is available from the LNWR Society Sales Officer 58 Shire Road, Corby, Northants, NN17 2HN. Paypal can also be accepted (treasurer&lnwrs.org.uk) but please state name, postal address and 'Thomas Baron' on the payment transfer. Copies can also be had from the society's eBay shop (www.ebay.co.uk/usr/bowencooke ) or debit/credit card orders on 01536 681496.

The Whitby-Loftus Line. Michael A. Williams. Oakwood Press. 188 pp. Reviewed by Michael Blakemoor *****
This reviewer has a fond memory of riding the coast line between Scarborough and Whitby but the dramatic route north of Whitby to Loftus had eluded him by some years — which I feel is a pity. The author introduces the branch by quoting an earlier polemicist describing it as "a spectacular failure". Mr. Williams goes on to contend that this branch should be seen as an element of a 'wider picture', a useful public train service along cliff tops, through tunnels and over a succession of cost-consuming slender iron viaducts over exposed ravines. The biggest, at Staithees, was subject to a wind gauge prohibiting its crossing by trains when the wind registered a force of more than 281b per square foot, with a speed limit of 20mph in general. Alarmingly, anecdotal evidence suggests these instructions might have been observed more in the breach ... The Whitby, Redcar & Middlesbrough Union Railway had a fraught beginning, to say the least, beset by financial woes, engineering difficulties and deficiences, shortage of labourers and the sacking of contractors, while the collapse of the Tay Bridge queered the pitch further. The company had gone bust in 1874 and was forced to enter an agreement with the North Eastern Railway to complete the line which it did with some degree of reluctance, abandoning a perilous cliff-edge route in favour of tunnels further inland. From the cutting of the first sod in 1871 it took until 1883 to achieve the opening of the branch.
Rather than spending time on the operating quirks of this branch (motive power, signalling arrangements etc), Mr. Williams takes a more forensic look at its realities and makes a point that while the line's economics might be painful to contemplate, it did within its own context deliver a significant contribution to its locality. Like so many 'seaside' lines it enjoyed bursts of busy activity during the summer months in sharp contrast to the rest of the year. Indeed, as recently as 1953 the BR Chief Regional Officer at York, while aware of pitiful passenger numbers, concluded that "In view of the heavy summer traffic it would seem we must continue to provide a reasonable winter service and improve the loading by introducing cheap fares." That attitude would not last long.
The Whitby-Loftus branch had an odd period of belated importance during the petrol fuel shortage arising from the Suez Crisis of 1956. With several hundred men from Whitby and the immediate locality employed at the ICI works near Redcar unable to be transported to work by bus, 'Suez Specials' were run, producing what were claimed to be some of the longest trains ever seen on the line. But the crisis passed in a few months; traffic returned to its minimalist level; with expenditure required on the viaducts and tunnels, closure was an easy decision and it came in May 1958. The viaducts were demolished and cut up for scrap.
This is a very well constructed book, embracing contemporary accounts of the line's problem-affected construction and official records of its mostly dispiriting financial and traffic performance, making the work a valuable contribution to the railway history of the North East.

Readers' Forum. 254

John Spencer Gilks and David Rodgers. Editor
I regret to report the death of that well-known photographer and writer John Spencer Gilks early in February. John was a photographer who travelled the length and breadth of Britain to record, in both colour and black & white, the railway system, being particularly interested in capturing details of the wider railway scene rather than 'locomotive and train' views. His photographic contributions to Backtrack go back many years and his willingness to help, with the aid of his meticulously indexed slide and negative registers, has been greatly appreciated. John's written contributions to railway periodicals go back to the 1960s and he was also well-know in adult education circles around his previous 659乐彩 in Surrey and in the world of recorded music; his later house, a converted school, in North Yorkshire accommodated an amazing collection of 78rpm gramophone records not to mention a sizeable 1960s jukebox!
I'm also sorry to have to record the death of colour photographer David Rodgers in January. David was a relative latecomer to the colour pages of Backtrack, his first contributions being published in the July 2016 issue, but after that his photographs appeared frequently until his most recent feature in January this year. He was a photographer of very considerable skill and we would have looked forward to much more of his work gracing our pages in the future. Our condolences go out to his family.

The splendour that was the single wheeler. Editor
The painting reproduced on p85 of the February issue is titled 'Great Western Elegance' and is by the artist Philip D. Hawkins FGRA.

Tapton House. Peter Steer 
Further to Philip Riden's excellent guest editorial in the February Backtrack, there was another engineering luminary who resided at Tapton House who, unlike George Stephenson, history has unfortunately forgotten. According to the national census, when Mary Pocock and Grace Walker ran their girls' boarding school at Tapton House they were joined by Grace's widowed sister, Epenetes Raworth. Epenetes became their housekeeper and was accompanied by two of her sons, John and Harrison. John Smith Raworth (1846-1917) was to have a distinguished career as an innovator and entrepreneur in the textile, electricity supply and tramway industries. He patented many improvements to textile manufacturing machinery and for the development of his 'Universal' high-speed steam engine which could directly drive the early dynamos without reduction gearing. These engines were used in many early public electricity supply schemes and were particularly suitable to provide electric lighting on ships. But his significant contribution was in the development of electric trams - championing this mode of transport and seeking ways to economically provide trams to localities ignored due to cost. These included the construction of his smaller 'demi-cars' and his innovative 'regenerative control'. Many sources cite J. S. Raworth as the inventor of 'regenerative braking', but his patented use of regeneration was not quite the same thing. In 1886 he was appointed Superintendent Engineer to the Anglo-American Brush Electric Light Corporation and later became a board member. Later he was a director of British Electric Traction and was chairman of small tramway companies. He was an active and popular member of the engineering institutions - electrical, mechanical and civil engineering. He had two sons who became electrical engineers, the eldest of whom, Alfred Raworth (1882-1967), became the Chief Electrical Engineer of the Southern Railway.

In praise of Moguls. Mike Barnsley 
Re article in February issue, I do not think it correct that the first Mogul bought by the Midland & South Western Junction Railway was originally intended for South America. I have been through the Beyer Peacock archives and they show locomotive works number 7948 as simply ordered by the M&SWJR, without any mention of South America. Beyer, Peacock & Co. had produced a catalogue illustrating their products, which included a class of Moguls they had previously built for the New South Wales Government Railways of Australia and all the indications are that the M&SWJR simply ordered a copy of the NSWGR locomotives. Certainly the M&SWJR locomotive was built to the same drawings.
The earliest claim I have found for the M&SWJR locomotive being a South American reject is in the Locomotive Magazine of 1900. As that magazine makes no mention of the very relevant Australian connection, it looks to me as though the author of the Locomotive Magazine article just got his continents mixed up. Unfortunately many authors since have preferred the Locomotive Magazine version to the evidence in the Beyer Peacock archives.

In praise of Moguls. Michael Davies 
Questions Jererny Clarke regarding to his assertion that the Garstang & Knott End Railway was, about 1870, the first British railway to employ a Mogul, which he also claims was American. The Knott End was an impecunious line in west Lancashire which opened in 1870 using a small 0-4-2T from Black Hawthorn. Some 0-6-0Ts followed and finally in 1908 its last purchase was an unusual 2-6-0T from Manning Wardle which became LMS 11680. It certainly never used tender engines, let alone American Moguls!

Scarborough engine shed. John Gibson 
Regarding locomotive duties at Scarborough, perhaps it should be mentioned that the National Archives, Kew have a series of official publications giving North Eastern engine duties. Information as to their holdings can be found at the National Archives web site by browsing from RAIL 527/2211 for the North Eastern Railway and from RAIL 401/103 for the LNER. Information for the NER up to the grouping is fairly complete from about 1910 for passenger workings continuing under the LNER for the twenties, but thereafter, coverage is patchy. Coverage for goods engine working is much less comprehensive. For anyone interested in North Eastern locomotive working, a visit to Kew is recommended.

Freight on the Underground. Gervase Holdaway.
Page 102 1st paragraph, reference the link from the Hammersmith & City line at Latimer Road to the West London line for Kensington Olympia. This link was definitively cut by a bomb on 20/21 October 1940 and it was never repaired. See The West London joint railways by J.B. Atkinson (Ian Allen 1984) p105. The passenger train service to Addison Road from Edgware Road ceased then and was never resumed, although it remained for some time on the London Transport maps I remember seeing the crater in the connecting embankment during the 1940s and '50s; the points at the end of the platforms at Latimer Road remained in place as did the four rail track either side of the crater. Seeing it recently I noticed the embankment had been removed although it is still possible to see the beginning of it at the end of the Latimer Road platform. See also letters from Geoffrey A. Smith and NIck Stanbury.

Freight on the Underground. Eric Stuart
Author checked the information about the re-routing of the Hammersmith & City coal train. The train was shown in the London Transport Railways Working Timetable 136 and the Traffic Circular No.27 of 1952 (paragraph 34) stated that the coal train was being re-routed with effect from 1 July 1952. This is information (as I suspected) from official LT sources and I have no reason to doubt the veracity of the information (I worked with such information for 26 years!!). Some comments:
1. It is possible that the train was actually re-routed earlier than the date given. That sometimes happened with trains and has caused subsequent confusion for historians!
2. My earlier understanding was that the spur from Latimer Road to the West London Line was damaged in 1940 to the extent that it was never used again. Looking back now, one can only assume that repairs were made to allow limited use, such as by this train, without the passenger service ever resuming.
3. I have been unable to find a date when the coal train (re-)commenced using the spur, so don't know if it ever officially stopped using it before 1952 or if it ever actually stopped and restarted after war damage.
Of course, if any eye-witness among Backtrack readers could be found, that would be great, but otherwise what I have quoted above and in my article seems the best we can says as to the facts. One of the great railway mysteries!!

The Holywell Town branch. Tony Robinson 
A minor error on my behalf. The mention of 'Parys Mine' in the text (p. l20) should describe the site as an offshoot of the Parys copper mine in Anglesey where the ore was processed into wire and nails for shipbuilding in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In other words there wasn't actually a mine on that site!

The Holywell Town branch. Larry Davies 
Photograph is of No. 41210 (Rhyl mpd 28 January 1950- 29 September 1951) and not No.41270 which was never a 7D locomotive.

Irish diesel traction. Michael Davies  254
Re unknown location' of the picture on p 106: it is Dromin Junction on the main line of the GNR(I). The train is an IRRS Special from Drogheda to Dundalk Barrack Street which also visited the Ardee branch from DrominJunction. The date is Saturday 18 May 1963. The Ardee branch closed to passengers in June 1934 and to all traffic on 31 October 1975. Dromin Junction closed to passengers in 1955.

Through Weymouth's streets. rear cover
57XX possibly No. 3737 on Weymouth Quay passing Southern National garage with Bedford lorry outside with National Bus 659乐彩 logo in 1961.

GWR '61XX' 2-6-2T No.6165
has brought the empty stock of an
express into Paddington station on
19 October 1963. Trevor Owen
May (Number 349)

Make your mind up — railways or canals. A.J. Mullay
Guest editorioal highlights an area of railway history which is perhaps too often overlooked.
If you ever tell anyone you are interested in railway canals, as I am, you may find that this prompts the response "Well, make your mind up, which is it, railways or canals?".
In fact, a large proportion of the nation's canals have been either railway-owned or managed (although rarely both). Even where a canal was independent, its tolls had often been set and exploited by a rival railway, usually much to the detriment of the canal company. That particular aspect of railway/canal interaction ended in the 1880s with long-term damage to canal companies' assets and a lengthy period of decline set in for most of the nation's waterways. A major milestone was reached in the next century when both forms of transport came under public ownership. But rail influence continued, with some waterways being managed by British Railways, and I believe that at least two canals are owned by Network Rail even today. I say 'believe', as NR has refused to give me a list of its owned canals and told my MP it doesn't own any anyway. Yet it recently paid for repairs on the Gravesend & Higham (ex-South Eastern & Chatham) and apparently continues to lease out the Stover (ex-GWR) to a local authority in Devon.
It's all part of a fascinating story, as I tell anyone who will listen. It seems a pity that this aspect of British transport history, which features such major concerns as the London & North Western, Midland, North Eastern, Great Western (pre- and post-grouping). LMSR, LNER, Southern, BR, etc, does not seem to be celebrated in book format.
Some curious details emerge from even a cursory glance at the history of railway canals. A Bradshaw guide of 1904 describes as "carrying very little traffic" the canals of the GWR and the LNWR (with the honourable exception of the Lancaster, in the case of the latter). Yet both these companies laid claim to the title of 'Premier Line'. A Royal Commission in Edwardian times heard damning evidence of how railway-leased tolls on the independent Leeds &Liverpool were raised to a level which priced the canal 'out of the market' and prevented investment in essential reservoir construction. Similarly, when the GWR boasted to the Commission about how well it looked after the Kennet &Avon, an independent witness counter-charged that the waterway needed dredging "very badly indeed". The recreational potential of Britain's waterways was officially recognised in 1979 with their transfer to a non-transport ministry, one with an environmental remit (DEFRA). Interestingly, despite the subsequent headlong rush in Britain from that time towards a market economy with virtually no state involvement in industry or transport, it appears that there is no call for the canals to be privatised. It seems curious that, in these days when even a national travel agency like Thomas Cook (once railway-owned too) is allowed to go to the wall, a non-viable transport network can still exist in this cost-conscious nation, its future seemingly secure - more than you can say for many minor remaining railway lines transporting "fresh air" from one part of the network to another (as quoted by a former Minister ofTransport). Canals can still prise open the public purse, all in the name of recreation. Couldn't preserved railways do the same? A canal administrator told me recently that "of course" they were receiving public funds to cater almost entirely for recreational users. You might consider that preserved 'heritage' railways are doing that too, along with a parallel policy of historical education, and doing so without state aid. Railway enthusiasts really should not turn their backs on the canals. Their resilience is worth acknowledging. Their example is worth following. See also letter from Michael Pearson

The way we live now
We are amidst a time of coronaviral adversity and it is possible that some readers might experience difficulty in buying BT from their usual outlets during the current emergency. Indeed, the word from the distributors is that many retailers are reducing their intake of magazines in general in expectation of reduced footfall. To ensure that non-subscription customers can continue obtaining their copy, we will supply current issues post free at the cover price of £4.85 on receipt at this office of postal, telephone or email orders up to the last day of the month of that issue. We can also take orders for the next one ... and so on. This will apply for as long as the present situation prevails. Alternatively our subscription provider Warners Group is offering a no-contract monthly direct debit for delivery straight to your door, to cancel when you wish, at £4.25 an issue, or you can try our online digital edltion. Of course you can avoid all such problems by taking out a subscription and having the magazine delivered every month straight from the printers. See the inside back cover advertisement for how to contact Warners. Thank you for your continuing support during what are difficult times for all of us.

Freight at Brocklesby in 1963/4. A. Murray.  260-1
Colour photo-feature: WD 2-8-0 No. 90035 on Class F train of petrol tank wagons on 12 Sepotember 1963; Thompson O1 class 2-8-0 on way to Immingham on 12 September 1964; K1 2-6-0 on freight for G rimsby or Imminham on 2 May 1963; WD 2-8-0 No. 90714 with empty plate wagons on 9 April 1064; BR Standard Class 5 No. 73010 on 2 May 1963.

Edward Gibbins. The opening of the new marshalling yard at Tinsley (Sheffield) in 1965. 262-70
In the 1960s it was considered that there was a major future for freight traffic by rail, but that there was a need to reduce transit times, increase reliability, increase productivity and eliminate the wasteful duplication inherited from the former competition which did not end with the Grouping. The Author was very closely involved with the transfer of work from the many small yards to this new major facility. Illustrations: Tinsley Marshalling Yatd in 1966; Lord Beeching unveiling plaaque at Tinsley on 29 October 1965; track plan of new yard; map showing relationship of Tinsley to other Sheffield yards; Dowty hydraulic Booster Retarders and Retarders; Class 20 Nos. 20 112 and 20 029 on freight on 16 July 1984 (Gavin Morrison); master and slave Class 13 No. 13003 on 28 July 1976 (Gavin Morrison); Class 08 No. 08 824 propelling train of ste el bars into yard on 7 May 2005 (colour: Gavin Morrison); loaded steel wagon on 26 June 1984 (Gavin Morrison); withdrawn rolling stock including Class 307 from Glossop 1500 V dc stored in yard on 26 June 1984 (Gavin Morrison);  Class 08 No. 08 079 Sheffield Childrenns  Hospital inside Tinsley Depot on 12 November 1997 (colour: Gavin Morrison); Watersway diver preparing to enter Sheffield & Tinsley Canal to uncouple railway wagons derailed en route from Tinsley to Hope Valley; Tinsley in decline on 28 February 1986  (Gavin Morrison).

M.G. Sadler. LMS carriage working summer 1939. 271-5
An examination of the London Midland & Scottish (LMS) Carriage Working Book summer 1939 with emphasis on the section between Derby and Bristol including services which extended beyond these limits such as Scotland and Bournemouth. It was extremely complex with through carriages, extra carriages on some days and catering vehicles. Some night parcels trains included passenger vehicles to provide an overnight "train" from York to Bristol, but a van was added at Poontefract and at both Sheffield and Derby vehicles were added both at the front and in the rear: the eight hour journey cannot have been restful. Illustrations: 60ft corridor third with four-a-side seating of 1932 (presumably to match similar GWR compartments); 60ft brake composite; Jubilee class 4-6-0 No. 5660 Rooke at Bristol Temple Meads;

Going, going ... towards the end of the 'Pacers'. Keith Dungate. 276-7
Colour photo-feature: Merseyrail yellow livery No. 142 043 near New Hey on 16.26 Manchester Victoria to Rochdale on 22 September 2001; chocolate & livery Skipper alias No. 142 022 leaving Guisley on 11.57 to Bradford Forster Square on 4 March 1988; Provincial Sector livery on No. 142 037 at Colne on 10.13 diservice to Preston on 1 August 1986; Northern liveried (liverished?) No. 141 020 leaving Gargrave on 12.44 Morecambe to Leeds on 4 Morch 2008; Nos. 142 078 and 142 095 in Arriva livery at Outwood on 16.48 Leeds to Sheffield on 1 July 2008; Class 144 No. 144 007 in West Yorkshire Metr0 attractive livery at Baildon with 14.00 Guiseley to Bradford Forster Square on 20 March 1987.

M.H. Yardley. And then there was one : a look at the rise and fall of two of Liverpool's Termini. 278-86.
Closure of Liverpool Exchange and Liverpool Central and concentration of services at Lime Street and on extensions to the underground Liverpool Loop. Illustrations: Class 5 4-6-0 No. 44664 on arrival at Liverpool Exchange on 17 July 1965 (colour: Trevor Owen); Hughes 4-6-0 No. 1514 on arrival of express at Liverpool Exchange; Liverpool Exchange frontage onto Tithebarn Street (colour); map; Great Central 4-2-2 No. 969 and Midland Railway 4-4-0 No. 399 in throat of Central station; GCR Class 11A 4-4-0 No. 871 non-stopping Flixton station on CLC Liverpool to Manchester express; Liverpool Exchange concourse in early twentieth century; L&YR electric multiple unit at Platform 6 in  Liverpool Exchange;  Fairburn Class 4 2-6-4T No. 42056 at Liverpool Central  on arrival of 08.10 service from Glazebrook on 14 April 1966 (colour: M.H. Yardley); Liverpool Central staion frontage with tram on route 40 to Pier Head on 20 Aiugust 1955 (T.J. Edgington); Class 5 4-6-0 No. 45137 on FA Cup Tie special to Manchester on 26 March 1966 (M.H. Yardley); Jubilee 4-6-0 No. 45698 Mars on express departing from Liverpool Exchange in October 1965; Class 5 4-6-0 No. 45202 on 09.00 to Glasgow and Edinburgh which it would work to Preston at Liverpool Exchange on 1 April 1968; Liverpool Exchange  with two Class 502 EMUs and Cravens DMU in mid-1970s; Derby two-car DMU at Liverpool Central with service to Gateacre in 1971 (Les Fifoot).

Arnold Tortorella. Caledonian Railway footbridges. 287
At Giffnock, Clarkston and Busby.

The Great Western Railway '61XX' tanks. 288-91
Colour photo-feature: Nos. 6141 and 6142 outaide Paddington station on 27 August 1960 (R.C. Riley); No. 6151 in lined green livery on Reading to Paddington service in Sonning cutting on 27 May 1959; No. 6128 in early BR plain black livery with cycling lion emblem on freight on Bourne End branch departing for High Wycombe in July 1961; No. 6117 in lined green livery on local freight at Princes Risborough on 10 June 1962;

Jeremy Clarke. William Stroudley's 0-4-2 tender engines. 292-8
Illustrations: D2 class No. 300 Lyons (O.J. Morris Collection); D3 Class No. 608 Richmond;  D3 Class No. 610 Cornwall at  Fratton in 1901; Gladstone No. 178 Leatherhead at Barcombe; No. 184 (not No, 185 as per caption) taking water at Lewes in 1922; No. 187 at Brighton with a special for Shoreditch; No. 165 Edward Blount with Hammond air pre-heater on Brighton shed in 1912; No. 190 Arthur Otway at Bognor in 1899;No. 191 at Horsham shed in 1927 still in umber livery; No. 214 Gladstone possibly at Hove; Nos. B172 and B197 at Brighton station on 8 May 1932; Gladstone in the old National Railway Museum in York in 1974.

Bruce Laws. Colwick: where coal was king. Part Two: Colwick in the late 1940s and 1950s — decades of decline. 299-303
Part 1 see page 134. The former LNER footplate crews, like Les Beet,  did not like the ugly Ivatt Class 4 2-6-0s and called them Mucky Ducks or Flying Pigs. Les Beet also had a strong dislike for the Britannia class Pacifics and prefered the K2 class 2-6-0s. The decline of the coal industry, much of the local output had been used to produce town gas replaced by natural gas and the closure of duplicate routes led to the residual output being routed via Toton. The closure of the Great Central main line was the final element in eliminating Colwick off the railway map and into a retail park. Illustrations; L1 No. 67790 in 1959; A5 No. 69805 at Nottingham Victoria; J5 No. 85480 at Colwick in 1950 (Mike Boakes); J6 No. 64246 in Nottingham Victoria in early 1959; WD Austerity 2-8-0 No. 90703 passing Nottingham Victoria on 20 April 1963; 9F 2-10-0 covered in limescale passing Victoria North signal box (colour); Nottingham Victoria Platform 4; Nottingham Victoria station site on 25 February 1968.

Steam in the North East Coalfield. David Idle. 304-5
Colour photo-feature: all July 1972: captions by John Scholes: Robert Stephenson & Hawsthorn 0-6-0ST No. 44 (WN 7760) en route between the Fenwick pit and Backworth crossing the Blyth & line at Earsdon signal box; Backworth Colliery with N.C.B. 0-6-0STs Nos. 6 and 9 outside engine shed (both were Ministry of Fuel and Power (W. Bagnall WN 2749/1944 and RSH WN 7097/1943 respectively) (some of the internal use wagons were painted bright red); Whittle Colliery 0-6-0ST No. 47 (WN 7849/1955); Morrison Busty Colliery with 0-6-0ST No. 83 (Hunslet Engine Co. WN 3688/1949) hauling loaded wagons to Oxhill near Annffield Plain on the line to Consett; Hawthorn Combines Mine at South Hetton with Gas Producer System modified 0-6-0ST No. 69 (WN Hunslet WN 3785/1953) with red painted wagons some marked Seaham)

Looking to the future. 306-9
Photographs from an album assembled by the Civil Engineer's Department presented to David Blee on his retirement in 1961 from General Manager of the London Midland Region: roof at Carlisle Citadel station; Carlisle Kingmoor Marshalling Yard undrr construction; Chelford station (buildings designed William Headley); south of Stockport two short tunnels opened up  and new bridges installed; Recruitment Centre at Euston (all that is bad with design at that time: flimsy steps & stick-on lettering); new bridge carrying Manchester South Junction & Altringham line across Fairfield Street (festooned with trolleybus wires) in Manchester; Training School at Horwich Works opened in 1959; interior ; Overseas Freight Office in Leadenhall Street, London; Oxford Road station. Manchester showing platform canopy (also in parrt Headley design) and sharp curvature with DMU; Radcliffe Central station buildings; Rugby flyover

Mike Fenton. The 'Dandy' Line. Part Two. 310-14.
Part 1. Lady Rosalind Howard was a great supporter of the railway but she had died in 1921 and the North Eastern Railway had been glad to cease the passenger service during WW1 and was reluctant to restart the service on 1 March 1920 and had set in motion its closure which was enacted by the LNER on 29 October 1923. The Author does not trace the handling of the coal traffic after the passenger service ceased. Illustratiions: Belted Will, track layout at Brampton Junction station in 1909; Dandie Dinmont; Mayor of Brampton on horse in protest for a lighr railway; crowd celebrating opening of Brampton Town station on 31 July 1913; official party next to NER inspection saloon during opening of Brampton Town station on 31 July 1913; more crowds celebrating opening of Brampton Town station on 31 July 1913; Fletcher BTP 0-4-4BT No. 1089 with single clerestory auto-coach at Brampton Town station in early 1920s; Brampton Junction station in early twentieth century.

Miles Macnair. From road unto rail: exercises in technology transfer. Part Four: Internal combustion and pneumatic tyres. 315-17
Begins with a personal adventure om the Talyllyn Railway in 1954 when as a schoolboy volunteer he had participated in lauching a converted Mercury tractor onto the narrow gauge rails to assist in permanent way work and the difficulty of getting it off again to visit the pub. The North Eastern Railway petrol electic railcar of 1902 and similar railway designed concepts are ignored in favour of road-based vehicles modified to run on rails. Cites Michael Collins Rail versus road in Ireland, 1900-2000. Coloupoint, 2000. Fails to mention Karrier Ro-Railer lorry used by LNER on West Highland line for permanent way work. Illustrations: Converted Mercury tractor when painted and given a cover; Caledonian Railway converted Argyll char-a-banc with luggage truck used to provide a shuttle service between Connel Ferry and Connel North; twin Ford railbuses coupled back-to-back working on Shropshire & Montgomeryshire Railway in 1923; AEC Regal single deck rail-bus conversion of 1932 tested on  the GWR and LNER (Maurice Early); Great Northern Railway (Ireland) bus fitted with Howden-Meredith pneumatic tyre wheels (Locomotive Mag., 1934, 40. 370); LMS Ro-Railer at Stratford-upon-Avon station during coversion between modes and close-up of effort involved.

Readers' Forum 318

The splendour of the single-wheeler. L.A. Summers 
The coloured images of MR No.116 (February) and GER No.10 (April) should have been credited to the Great Eastern Railway Society.

Crossing London: the City Widened Lines. Michael J. Smith
Geoffrey Skelsey has served us well with his comprehensive account of the background and economic and political ramifications of the long-running Thameslink story Oanuary and March issues). May I add a few comments? The York Road platform at King's Cross, depicted on p179 (March), did not serve the down line, as stated in the caption, but the up, although physically, of course, the track went down into Metropolitan territory. The down line surfaced at the far side of the main line station, having come up by means of the notorious Hotel Curve tunneL Thus are the ups and downs of railways!
The York Road platform, incidentally, had nothing to do with the tube station of the same name opened by the Great Northern, Piccadilly & Brompton Railway (today's Piccadilly Line) on 15 December 1906 about half a mile to the north and closed on 17 December 1932, just before the London Transport era.
Further south such potential confusion was avoided by the Southern Railway's renaming of its ex-LCDR St. Paul's station as Blackfriars, mentioned by Mr. Skelsey Oanuary). This took place on 10 February 1937 in response to London Transport's decision to rename its Post Office station, opened on 30 July 1900 on the Central London Railway, as St. Paul's from 1 February. Later that year, on 23 August in a further tidying-up, LT enamed what it had briefly called the Central London Line as the Central Line.

From road unto rail. Stephen G. Abbott
Despite their name Brush Electrical Engineering would have not been fazed by the task of assembling the 1904 Ganz steam railcar mentioned in Part Three of Miles Macnair's article (March issue). Its predecessor Henry Hughes's Falcon Works built steam tramway locomotives from 1873, then small conventional locomotives including notably Talyllyn (ex- Corris) Railway No. 3 Sir Haydn. Brush continued building steam alongside its growing tramcar and rolling stock business from taking over in 1889 until 1914. I have a facsimile of its 1904 catalogue issued in 1965 to celebrate the centenary of the company. This includes types from 0-4-0T and 0-6-0T to 3ft gauge 4-4-0T s as supplied to the Cork & Muskerry Light Railway and 4-4-0 tender locomotives for the then 2ft gauge Beira Railway in Mozambique. In all over 250 steam locomotives were built at Loughborough.

Four wheels on my wagon. John Macnab 
As given mention  in March Editorial the quality of carriage stock made advancements from the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in that passenger coaches be it of the four- or six-wheeled variety was being progressively phased out.
However, the Caledonian Railway found itself in its closing years of existence in 1920/1 having to replace stock dating from the 1880s on a virtuallike-for-like basis that was necessary due to the extreme curvature of track in following an accompanying water course, that being the Edinburgh Princes Street-Balerno branch.
These new build of four-wheeled coaches totalled seven firsts, 22 thirds and ten brake thirds. They would appear to have run so employed into subsequent LMSR days, only ceasing when the service was withdrawn during World War 11 in November 1941
I would, however, imagine they also ran on other suburban services emanating from Edinburgh Princes Street over the years and indeed into early BR days as is shown in a grainy photograph in the December 1950, issue of Trains Illustrated magazine, although the caption errs in giving Balerno as a destination. This should have conceivably read Barnton and this particular service itself ceased in May 1951 and note is given in other sources that all the coaches in question were withdrawn en bloc in May 1952.
Photographic records or written detail of any of the above seem especially sparse apart from the redoubtable H. C. Casserley who photographed examples of all three types of stock at Barnton in October 1946, one of them, still a full first, shown in Caledonian in LMS Days, p64, by Niall Ferguson and David Stirling (Pendragon, 2007).

The Southern in Devon  Roger Merry-Price
An error, solely on my part, occurred in my letter published in the February issue. The penultimate paragraph read:" In 1958 all the former SR lines were transferred back to the Southern Region with the exception of those in the Plymouth area where the WR took over complete control including operating arrangements. As a result Plymouth Friary shed was transferred from the WR to the SR. As most readers will be aware, I meant to say that Plymouth Friary shed was transferred from the SR to the WR and not the other way around. It was, of course, re-coded from 72D to following the transfer.

Colwick. Roger A. Smith
Re several errors that appeared in an otherwise excellent article. Whereas the colliery lines shown on the map were either all or mostly built by the Midland, GC and GN companies, and later by BR (Cotgrave and Calverton), the line from Cinderhill (Babbington) Colliery to Newcastle and Bobbers Mill Collieries and which ended adjacent to the Radford Junction to Trowell Junction line, was only ever a colliery company line. This line actually pre-dated most of the railways in this area and was originally built to connect the collieries with the Babbington Canal Wharf on the Nottingham Canal at Radford. When the Midland Railway opened the Radford Junction to Trowell Junction line in 1875 it crossed the colliery line on the level and a north-to-west connecting curve and exchange sidings were built. The colliery line south of Newcastle Colliery eventually closed in the 1930s and its course now lies beneath Western Boulevard, part of the 1930s-built Nottingham ring road. The remainder of this line stayed open until about 1960, with regular trips hauled by NCB locomotives to the site of Newcastle Colliery, which by this time had become a land-sale wharf.
On p125 the author states that 'The Great Northern Railway opened its own Derbyshire and Staffordshire extension line from Eggington Junction (on the North Staffordshire Railway's line from Stafford) to its own Derby Friargate station". Firstly, this is misleading, as the Derbyshire and Staffordshire Extension extended all the way from Rectory Junction to Egginton (note, no third 'g') Junction and not simply from the latter point to Derby Friargate station. Secondly, Egginton Junction was on the North Staffordshire Railway's line from Stoke on Trent, not Stafford. The NSR never reached Stafford on its own metals, although the GNR did so, after acquiring the Stafford & Uttoxeter Railway in 1881.
The tunnel between Arno Vale and Gedling, referred to on pp135 and 136, was only ever called Mapperley Tunnel. Mapperley Plains was indeed the name of the high ridge through which the tunnel bored, but the tunnel itself was simply Mapperley Tunnel.
The connection to the route to the GNR's Nottingham London Road station was effected at Colwick West Junction, not Colwick North Junction. Bingham Road station was not on the GNR Nottingham-Grantham line, but on the GN/LNW Joint line south east of Saxondale Junction. The station referred to on the Nottingham-Grantham line was simply 'Bingham'.
Lastly, the author refers to the line from Culworth Junction (near Woodford Halse) to Banbury as "the joint line". The line was indeed used by both the GCR (later LNER) and GWR, but it was solely owned by the GCR/LNER, and therefore could not be termed a 'joint' line as is understood in the usual usage of the word in a railway context.

The railways of Oxfordshire. Gerald Goodall  
Stephen Roberts's review of Oxfordshire's railways in the March issue is curiously time-warped at 1987 in respect of the former LNWR line into Oxford. I feel that the story is incomplete without mention of major developments since then ..
The original Network South-East reopening from Oxford to what became Bicester Town (formerly London Road) was a cautious affair, just a few trains at peak times, and the station was indeed left rather gaunt and basic. However, success soon attended the venture; the service was expanded to something like an all-day one and modest improvements were made to the station. Some of the trains ran through to or from Reading or even Paddington, no doubt for operational convenience, and I dare say for a bit offun, rather than any commercial reasons. There was even sometimes through working to or from Bristol during the bizarre period when Turbos' on direct Oxford-Bristol services clogged up capacity on the GW main line west of Didcot. The trains still had to plod along rather slowly between Bicester and Oxford due to the state of the infrastructure, but this was evidently preferred to sitting in a monstrous traffic jam on the main road.
Everything changed when Chiltern Railways decided to develop its own main line route to Oxford. The Oxford-Bicester line was closed for several months (bus substitions on a line only quite recently reopened!) while it was rebuilt as a proper 100mph two-track railway. A completely new junction at Bicester linked the route to what had become Chiltern's main line to Birmingham. All this was much delayed by bureaucratic procrastination, but eventually the line was reopened to a brand-new station at Oxford Parkway in October 2015. It took another fourteen months, and more delays, to complete the route into new bay platforms at Oxford itself. The former Bicester Town re-emerged phoenix-like as a new Bicester Village on the same model as Oxford Parkway. The 'Village' refers to a major Outlet Centre immediately adjacent, which attracts shoppers from far and wide and begets multi-lingual announcements on how to get there at Marylebone. A half- hourly express service, seven days a week. was introduced, most trains taking just over an hour to or from Oxford. This compared well with the GW Paddington service at the time and is still not very far behind it even with the advantage of electric operation most of the way on the Paddington trains. There is a loser in all this, the intermediate station in the large village of lslip; this has two-hourly service on Saturdays and Sundays but is largely ignored on weekdays. We keep on being told that the 'East and West Railway', or other similar names, will extend eastwards from Bicester on the old LNW route to Bletchley and Bedford, maybe even (on what would have to be new construction) to Cambridge. I shall look forward to this. One final anecdote that may be of interest. The Chiltern route to Oxford has occasionally been used as a diversion for GW HSTs during blockades on the main line. On 27 December 2017 the blockade included Paddington itself and some HSTs were run to and from Marylebone. Mostly these went to Bristol, sometimes Swansea; but there were also some though workings to and from Penzance. The preposterous absurdity of there being through trains, in more-or-less normal service, between Marylebone and Penzance beggars belief. Sir Edward Watkin would have been very pleased.

The railways of Oxfordshire. Peter Rance
Re Stephen Roberts comments under the Cotswold Line section, Hanborough's greatest day came with Winston Churchill's funeral train in January 1965. Of course that was an historic day, but I do wonder whether we should also reflect upon the short period of what it once had and can no longer recreate for our commuters on this line, of which I am one. Namely that when the OWWR, GWR and LNWR were in "challenging relationships" Hanborough was then, quite remarkably a major junction station, where one could travel to London by either LNWR to Euston or GWR to Paddington! Hardly surprising that when the OWWR became the West Midland Railway which was then absorbed into the GWR in 1863, this dual option was very quickly removed. This is another example of 'what if?' had events tumed out differently.

The railways of Oxfordshire. Stephen G. Abbott
Stephen Roberts's description of the reduced status of the Oxford-Bicester line has been overtaken by events. As the first part of the planned East-West route to Cambridge the line has been upgraded to a 100mph double-track. with a spur at Bicester to the Aynho junction-Princes Risborough line. This has enabled a service from London Marylebone to a new Oxford Parkway station in north Oxford from September 2015, extended to Oxford main station In December 2016. Bicester Town has been renamed yet again to Bicester Village, with a direct exit to the eponymous shopping centre which is a popular day trip destination from London for overseas visitors. The new service has been highly successful. Bicester Village generating 1.8 million annual passenger journeys (compared with 200,000 latterly at Bicester Town) and Oxford Parkway one million, with no lasting impact on the continued passenger growth at Oxford itself.

Goole's railways 1836-1910 . E. Scarlett
Re photograph at the top of p26 The image caption implies that the feature on the far left of the Dutch River girder bridge is the start of the Aire and Calder Canal. As this canal is north of the Dutch River the feature referred to is only an arch over the towpath, the girder bridge shown at the foot of p26 being to the right of the Dutch River crossing. The North Eastern Railway combined these bridges as its Viaduct 13 spanning, north to south, the L YR, two canals and a towpath (plus several arches filled in later) and stretched over 15 chains (333 yards).

And as the sun sets over Stafford. Edward Talbot. rear cover
Locomotive hauled express on West Coast Main Line at Baswich: HS2 given go-ahead in spite of virus

LSWR '700' Class 0-6-0 No.30327
runs through Exeter Central station,
passing E1/R 0-6-2T No.32697, on 28
June 1958 with prison in background.
June (Number 350)

The way things are. Michael Blakemore, 323
Amadeus Press had to cease production and emergency issue printed by Warners (Midlands) took over.

Rebuilt Scot No. 46121 Highland Light Infantry. City of Glasgow Regiment on Beattock bank with Birmingham  to Glasgow express. Eric Treacy

'Black Motors'. 324-5.
Colour photo-feature of Drummond LSWR 0-6-0 built by Dubs & Co. in 1897. No. 30699 ex-Works on Eastleigh shed in 1954; No. 30698 in Guildford shed on 24 March 1962 (G. Parry) No. 30350 on passenger train including two Pullman cars to mark centenary of Portsmouth Direct line near Petersfield on 25 January 1959 (Trevor Owen); No. 30346 in siding at Weybridge with a freight train on 24 April 1962 (A.F.H. Hudson); No. 30346 with breakdown train near Honiton on West of England main line in September 1958 (P.J. Hughes):

Paul Joyce. Hampshire footplate memories: the early years.,  as told by Tom 'Nipper' Turner. 326-32
Turner lived in Swanwick and left school in 1957 to join the Royal Air Force as a tradesman, but disovered that his school friends were earning more at Eastleigh locomotive sheds; thus he baled out and joined them as an engine cleaner who joined in and experienced the usual practical jokes and perils of working on locomotives which in some cases were not handled correctly. Harty, a mate drove a Terrier 0-6-0T through the shed doors. Illustrations: No. 30850 Lord Nelson at Eastleigh shed coaling stage on 22 May 1960 (P. Patterson: colour); Swanwick station with BR Class 4 2-6-0 waiting departure for Southampton Terminus (Roger Holmes); Ivatt Class 2 2-6-2T No. 41311 at Bishops Waltham with freight train on 25 July 1961 (Les Elsey: colour); T9 4-4-0 No. 30707 on Eastleigh shed in August 1960; Southampton Terminus on 6 September 1966; Plymouth, Devonport & South Western Junction 0-6-2T No. 30758  Lord St. Levan; M7 0-4-4T No. 30480 at Bishops Waltham with freight train on 26 April 1952 (Les Elsey); Durley Halt and crossing keeper's house viewed from guard's van on 8  March 1958 (Chris Gammell); Andover GWR engine shed with Maunsell Mogul in June 1954; S15 4-6-0 No. 30828; No. 6910 Gossington Hall at Eastleigh (Roger Holmes); A1X Terrie r No. 32678 on Langstone Bridge with train from Hayling Island in June 1962 (A.J. Reeve: colour)

John Spencer Gilks. Ryedale rambler. 333-5.
Black & white photo-feature (all 26 May 1960 unless noted otherwise): J39 No. 64928 running round its freight train from Kirbymoorside to Malton at Gilling; Helmsley station viewed from brakevan; J39 No. 64929 running through Kirbymoorside station; J39 No. 64928 at Pockley level crossing; J39 No. 64928 on Kirkdale Viaduct; Nawton station viewed from brakevan; Nunnington station cum teashop with train crew being refreshed; train crew with train at Gilling; diesel multiple unit at Hovingham Spa with ramblers from Bradford Forster Square on 27 July 1964.

David Joy. Rails to Windermere. 336-43
William Wordsworth fought poeticalyy to keep the railways out of the Lake District, but lost and two werre built. The first was a branch off the Lancaster & Carlisle Railway from Oxenholme to Kendal and onto Windermere which opened in 1847. The second was that built by the Furness Railway to Windermere (Lake Side) which opened in 1869; closed in 1965 and which reopened as a tourist attraction. The first should have an electric service, but this was cancelled by a dithering Transport Minister. Extensions to Ambleside including one in the form of 3 foot six inch gauge electric tramway were vigourously opposed. Illustrations: Windermere station with hotel (painting by colour); Burneside station in LNWR period; Precursor 4-4-2T No. 6782 approaching Plantation Bridge with up express in 1930s; map; Rachel, 90 hp petrol locomotive on roadside tramway from Burneside to Cropper's paper mill with four wagons; Furness Railway 0-6-2T No.104 at Windermere Lake Side with six-wheel carriages; Class 5 4-6-0 No. 45025 on Lake Side to Ulverston train on 24 July 1960 (Derek Cross); Lake Side pier, Palm Court restaurant and narrow gauge tramway for conveying coal to steamers (coloured postcard); steamer Swift at Lake Side showing verandah; rebuilt Patriot No. 45523 Bangor arriving Oxenholme with through train from Windermere (Derek Cross); Newby Bridge Motor Car Platform in 1905;  tender first Class 5 4-6-0 No. 45025 at Lake Side with Ulverston train on 10 July 1965 (Derek Cross); Class 5 No. 45386 passing Haverthwaite with a Lake Side to Liverpool return excursion on 24 July 1960 (Derek Cross); level crossing at  Staveley with queue of vehicles on road in 1966 (David Joy); Fowler 2-6-4T No. 42378 leaving Kendal for Windermere on 25 August 1964 (Alan Tyson); Fowler 2-6-4T No. 42317  with train from Oxenholme on 24 May 1959 (John Spencer Gilks).

Western Wolverhampton 344
Colour photo-feature: No. 6012 King Edward VI on train for London in April 1962 (G. Parry); Castle class No. 5050 Earl of St. Germans in April 1957 (K. Cooper); Dukedog 4-4-0 No. 9028 in September 1957; fully lined black Hall class No. 5947 St. Benet's Hall in March 1958; No. 7029 Clun Castle on 4 March 1967 (David Idle)

David Langton. Trans-Pennine timetable development 1961-2019. 346-53
See also transition from steam to something better, but not what is needed. Author was Timetable Strategy Manager with the TransPennine Express franchise. There is a  statement in the third paragraph which may not be interpreted correctly by those who do not know the area: "Before the M62 opened across the Pennines in the early 1970s the Yorkshire and Lancashire economies and the Regional centres were to a great extent self-contained. No-one from Hudddersfield ever went shopping in Manchester, for example."  KPJ's father commuted from Greenfield with people from Huddersfield who worked in Manchester, The service was dreadful as compared with that on the Southern Region: dirty, ancient rolling stock, reeked of smoke from the tunnels. Bill Tuplin was a regular user of the route. The residue of the old company rival services was still there in 1961 — from Liverpool via Woodhead to Hull and by the L&Y route  from Liverpool Exchange to Newcastle. These were replaced by the Trans-Pennine diesel units between Hull and Liverpool, the  Calder Valley Class110 DMU on Leeds Central-Bradford Exchange-Liverpool Exchange workings which tended to be very noisey and by locomotive hauled Liverpool to Newcastle workings. Food on the trains gradually disappeared and unsuitable diesel railcars gradually took over. Illustrations: Class 124 Trans-Pennine diesel unit in original state at Leeds City on 25 July 1962 (colour); Class 40 No. 40 026 passing Rainhill station with Sunday 08.50 Liverpool Lime Street to Newcastle on 27 April 1975 (David Rapson); Calder Valley Class110 DMU on Leeds Central-Bradford Exchange-Liverpool Exchange at Luddendenfoot on 12 May 1963 (Gavin Morrison: colour); Class 40 No. D279 at Leeds City on Newcastle to Liverpool express (Gavin Morrison: colour); Class 45 No. 48 having heating boiler refilled at Newcastle Central on arrival on 10.10 from Liverpool on 30 November 1974 (David Rapson); Class 46 passing Morley station with Newcastle to Liverpool express on 23 June 1975 (Gavin Morrison: colour); Class 124 Trans-Pennine diesel unit shortened to five cars in BR corporate livery at Golcar on descent from Standedge on 16 March 1974 (Gavin Morrison: colour); Class 46 No. 46 046 leaving Earlstown with 07.58 Newcastle to Liverpool express on 5 November 1974 (David Rapson); Class 47 No. 47 406 in Inter-City with train in Regional Railways livery on Saddleworth Viaduct with 16.20 Newcastle to Liverpool express on 1 May 1989 (Gavin Morrison: colour) (from late 1948 until 1954 KPJ lived on Ladcastle Road about 400 yards towards Greenfield from point where photograph taken); Class 150/2 Sprinter in Regional Railways livery on 09.51 Hull to Holyhead passing Shaw's works Diggle 0n 26 September 1987 (Gavin Morrison: colour); Class 47/4 No. 47 475 in  Regional Railways livery with train to match leaving Dewsbury on 08.52 Liverpool to Newcastle on 18 February 1990 (Gavin Morrison: colour); Class 158 No. 158 806 leaving Stalybridge going east on 30 March 1996 (Gavin Morrison: colour).

Jeffrey Wells. The Metropolitan Railway in the news 1860-1863. Part One. 354-9
Makes the claim that the Metropolitan Railway was known as the tube and cites Peter Ackroyd's London — the biography (a rather strange title) and that an underground railway had been broached from the 1840s. In comparison with the slightly later Metropolitan District Railway it was a simpler operation both in financial and engineering terms. Charles Pearson, Solicitor to the City of London, was extremely important in gathering City financial support for the project and his portait sits facing Gustav Gore's depiction of the traffic chaos in Ludgate Hill in 1872 (something which may be missed in digital versions of this publication). On the construction side John Fowler was the Chief Engineer with Benjamin Baker as his assistant. Thomas Johnson was the Resident Engineer. Smith & Knight and John Jay were the contractors. The press sources include Trewman's Exeter Flying Post (surely an unexpected source), the Morning Chronicle (19 March 1860), The Morning Post (3 May 1860), the Daily News (18 May 1860). In addition to the expected buildings collapsing one of John Jay's locomotive boilers exploded. Illustrations: Ludgate Hill (Gustav Gore drawing); Charles Pearson portrait; map of Metropolitan Railway and associated railways during time of construction; Baker Street proposed station; cutting & covering near King's Cross station (engraving); John Fowler portrait; broad gauge? locomotive at Stafford Street Bridge on trial trip in 1862 (photograph)

Robin Barnes. Thoughts on Scottish coal. Part two. 360-4..
Part 1 see page 213 et seq. Author's family 659乐彩 was in Falkirk near the High Station and within sight of the Policy Colliery at that time owned by the Callendar Coal 659乐彩. Working conditions in the mines were very bad and women and children provided the motive power and were considered expendable by some of the employers. Housing was equally bad with ash toilets and open sewers. The Dukes of Hamilton profited from this squalour and were able to live a profligate lifestyle. There was a major disaster on 25 September 1923 near California when a wall gave way in the Dublin section of Number 23 Pit  flooding and trapping 66 men only five of whom were rescued after nine days.There is a memorial stone at Redding Cross. Between 1865 when the first locomotive arrived and 1947 ten locomotives served the Redding system: nine four-coupled and one six-coupled. A table lists the six built by Inglis of Airdrie. Also notes Slamannan Railway which has become a part of the preserved Bo'ness & Kinneil Railway. Lists the six former rail crossings of the Forth plus the seventh by tunnel to link the colliery workings at Kinneil and Valleyfield in Fife. This opened in 1964 to enable the output from Valleyfied to be processed at Kinneil. The Kinneil colliery dated back to the 1850s and until 1871 was exploited by the Wilson family, later by the Kinneil Iron & Coal Co.; at nationalisation the Kinneil Cannel & Coking Co. Ltd. The first pair of locomotives were Barclay 0-4-0ST which were cut up in 1939 and replaced by Barclay 1664/1919 which came from Edinburgh Corporation and Hawthorn Leslie 3175/1916 which came from ICI Billingham. Both were scrapped in 1962 toget her with former Callendar Barclay 1981/1933. The last locomotives at Kinneil were Barclay 2157/1945 and 2292/1951. The Cadell family owned Bridgeness No. 6 Colliery, but this was taken over by the Carron Co. of Falkirk in 1937. In 1901 Barclay 916 was acquired new and given the name  and in 1908 WN 1139 followed and given the name Grange. These had gone by 1936 and were replaced by Allan Andrews 0-4-0STs Carron Nos. 7 and 8 (WN 5/1874 and 18/1878. Illustrations: Callendar railways map; NCB No. 15 (Inglis 3/1912 0-4-0ST purchased by James Nimmo & Co. crossing swivel bridge over Union Canal when working at Redding Colliery by Polmont (Robin Barnes painting); Redding railways map; North British Paxman 0-4-0 No. D2703 running west from Falkirk High towards Scottish Tar Distillers Rough Castle siding (photograph); Policy Colliery permanent way and disc signal on 5 June 1964 (photograph); Allan Andrews 0-4-0ST working at Bridgeness No. 6 Colliery alongside mud flats on Forth near Bo'ness (Robin Barnes painting).

Readers' Forum. 365

BR Standard Class 2 2-6-0s. Editor
John Spencer Gilk's photograph of No.78049 of the April issue was taken at Kelso, not St. Boswells.

Oxfordshire's railways. Robin Leleux
Re Stephen Roberts's article in which he writes "we are definitely back in Oxfordshire when we reach Banbury (1850), the line re-entering the county on its approach." Indeed yes now but certainly not when the stations were built. The important old town of Banbury grew up on the west (Oxfordshire) bank of the River Cherwell which at this point forms the boundary between Oxfordshire and Northamptonshire. When the railways arrived in 1850 — the Great Western and the Buckinghamshire (an LNWR creature) — they built their adjacent stations on the disused racecourse in Grimsbury, an old settlement on the eastern bank of the river, ie in Northamptonshire. Although Grimsbury subsequently became part of Bodicote parish in Oxfordshire and simultaneously was absorbed into Banbury's borough boundary in 1889, interestingly the 1900 25in to the mile OS map for 1900 still shows the river as the county boundary, a point reinforced by the 1904 RCH Handbook of Railway Stations which list both of Banbury's stations as being in Northamptonshire.
As Roberts points out, the LNWR line trains into Oxford ultimately abandoned their own station and ran into the GWR one. Despite being adjacent, such an arrangement never materialised in Banbury. The LMS did plan a joint station with the GWR in 1938 but naturally World War II ended that. When the plans for a rebuilt station were revived in the 1950s it was strictly a BR (WR) one (1958), although the bay platform 4 was incorporated as a nod to possible LMR trains, perhaps running in through the old exchange siding. It never happened and such trains were withdrawn anyway in 1961.
Finally the elegant cast iron work of the LNWR's Rewley Road station in Oxford, which closed in 1951 and for years was a tyre depot, has found safety by being incorporated into the premises of the Quainton Road heritage railway centre.

Colwick — when coal was king. Robin Leleux
Re comprehensive article on the locomotive shed and yards at Colwick in the March issue Bruce Laws queries the nature of the High Dyke branch (p 140), surmising that it was an old ironworks. It was not. Instead it served a busy complex of ironstone mines which sent huge quantities of iron ore to Scunthorpe. May I elaborate? The Great Northern Railway's High Dyke branch came off the main line some way south of Grantham, near Great Ponton (Ancaster is some way to the north east) and ran south westwards to Stainby, with a branch going off west to Sproxton. The southern most Buckminster quarries had been opened up from the late 1890s by the Holwell Iron Co. (possibly where Mr. Laws got the idea of an ironworks connection) but with a rail connection southwards. The greatly increased demand from the Frodingham steelworks at Scunthorpe, stimulated by wartime needs, encouraged the GNR to build its High Dyke branch to an end-on junction with the Holwell Co.'s tramway at Stainby; the first load of ore departed for Scunthorpe in October 1917.
Thereafter the whole area between the villages of Thistleton, Colsterworth and Buckminster was extensively mined (hence the Sproxton branch of c1922), being served by a system of industrial tramways well known to enthusiasts, until the decimation of the British ore-mining industry by higher quality foreign imports in the 1970s, and taken away via the High Dyke branch.

Freight on the Underground. Roger A. Smith,  
There seems to be conflicting evidence as to when exactly the line connecting Latimer Road Junction on the Hammersmith & City Line with Uxbridge Road Junction on the West London Line was closed to all traffic. Holdaway in his letter in the April 乐彩网17500cn Backtrack states that the line was severed by bomb damage on 20/21 October 1940 and never repaired, but Mr. Stuart in his letter does not seem so sure that this was the case, quoting LT documents in support. In support of the complete closure occurring in 1940, Map 38 in R.V. Cooke's Atlas of the Great Western Railway 1947, Revised Edition, (Wild Swan 1997) shows the line as 'Closed 1940'. Conversely, H.V. Borley in his Chronology of London Railways (RCHS, 1982), whilst agreeing that the passenger service was withdrawn after 20 October 1940, has complete closure not occurring until 1 March 1954. This latter date is also shown on Joe Brown's London railway atlas, Fifth Edition (Crecy, 2018), whilst the Ordnance Survey 1:1250 map of the area shows the line intact throughout, including the junctions at each end. This is also the case on the 7th Series 1 inch : l mile maps published between 1955 and 1961. I can't be certain as to exactly when this area was surveyed for the 1:1250 maps, but they date from the period 1944 to 1969, and certainly contain ample evidence of bomb sites created during the blitz (see maps.nls), so the survey was obviously post 1940/1941. If indeed no traffic of any kind used this route, or was unable to use the route, after 20 October 1940, it does seem rather odd that it took fourteen years to close the line officially.

Freight on the Underground. Nick Stanbury 
Writer knew the Hammersmith area well in the late-1950s to mid-1960s and took a particular interest in the local railways — although, in retrospect, he wishes he had explored the area more thoroughly whilst evidence of former lines and services remained. The references to GWR/WR freight traffic on the Hammersmith & City in Eric Stuart's interesting article (February) and the subsequent correspondence (April) led me to delve further into the question of its routeing after the 1940 war damage.
There seems no doubt that the spur between Latimer Road Junction and Uxbridge Road Junction was severed by bombing on 20/21 October 1940, having been damaged 'at both ends' (per Atkinson, The West London Joint Railways). Given the significant damage already suffered elsewhere in the area (which had recently caused withdrawal of the other local services using the West London Line), it was hardly surprising that the infrequent LT passenger service over this spur also succumbed immediately and was never reinstated. The other regular use of the spur was for the return working of the freight (mostly coal) train from Hammersmith (03.20) to Addison Road, reversing at Latimer Road, normally thrice-weekly. But, given the exigencies of wartime and changing traffic patterns, whether the spur was ever reinstated for use by this or other traffic and actually so used has been questioned.
In addition to the suggestions made by Atkinson and other authors, I have found two sources that clearly support the reinstatement, despite Gervase Holdaway's contemporary sighting of "the crater in the connecting embankment" remaining into the 1950s (but to what date, I wonder — and was the line itself still severed?). The first evidence is in Railways and transport of Hammersmith and West London (Forge Books, 2000), which refers to the trains and includes details of their timings in 1939 (03.38 from Old Oak Common). It also states that the timings were blank in the working timetable for 3 March 1941, as one might expect if the spur was out of use, but would be specified in a special notice. More positively, the detailed instructions for the working of the Hammersmith 'coal' trains are also separately reproduced and these specify the spur routeing for the return journey. These instructions (apparently from the relevant sectional appendix) are, alas, undated but, as they refer to Kensington Olympia, must surely be no earlier than 19 December 1946, the date on which Addison Road was so renamed. The departure time of the outward train had then become 03.10 from Old Oak Common.
The other evidence is in articles in Underground News, the journal of the London Underground Railway Society and available online. The December 2013 issue contains much interesting detail (largely culled from LT files) ofthe lines and traffic at and around Addison Road and, in particular, what changed during and after World War II. In relation to the spur, it is apparent that its continuing existence, for use by the returning Hammersmith coal train and by occasional LT ballast trains from Lillie Bridge, was the subject of protracted discussions between LT and the Western Region from 1950, if not earlier. LT confirmed that it had no intention of reinstating any passenger service but considered the spur as of potentially strategic importance in the event of either the West London line or the Circle Line (through High Street Kensington) being put out of action. These discussions also embraced the 'Crystal Palace Loop', which connected the WR and H&C (close to the western exit of the H&C underpass, east of Westbourne Park) and was used by the Hammersmith service on its outward journey.
Ultimately, it was agreed to re-route the coal train via Paddington (date not given, but Eric Stuart suggests this as effective from 1 July 1952) and the spur's connections and signalling were stated in a WR Traffic Circular as taken out of use on 28 February 1954 and subsequently dismantled. We are told that some of the spur's conductor rails and electrical equipment had already been removed during the preceding couple of years and this is borne out by a photograph of its disconnected lower end in West London Line (Middleton Press, 1996), which presumably dates from this time.
The January 2014 issue then continues with details and diagrams of LT signalling alterations in the area in August/December 1950, including those affecting the spur, which was clearly still in use and would remain open for a further three years. The same article refers to the Crystal Palace Loop as closing on 15 January 1956 and its site is illustrated.
The question remains, however, as to when the spur was reinstated following the 1940 damage and its use by the Hammersmith goods services (or other traffic) recommenced. That information must surely be available from other archive material?

The Dandy line. Chris Mills 
Re location known as 'Clarty Turn' and speculation on its derivation. Correctly identified the term clarty as bring Geordie for — dirty. It is probably closer to sticky dirty, as in 'clarty boots' which would have 'clods' adhering to them, but not a much as 'claggy' where the mud would stay firmly attached and need prising off.
Typically wet clay would be clarty and, given that the Brampton area had a history of clay extraction ever since the times of Roman tile making, this is probably the source of the name — an area where the surrounding fields were extremely muddy with clay more or less at the surface. Incidentally the Kirkhouse Brick 659乐彩 was still in production until after WW2.

The Southampton Docks diesels. Ian Benfield
Writer disagrees with statement "the rest travelled the whole way by road": he had a distinct memory of Nos.D2986/87/88 trundling through Sandy, one towing the other two, in May or June 1962 while en route from Lincoln to Southampton. At this time there were only two main line tracks through Sandy so in common with most freights they had spent a considerable time waiting for a path through the station. One wonders how many days the entire trip took!

May editorial. Michael Pearson 
A.J. Mullay's editorial in the May issue raises some tantalising points regarding the relationship, both past and present, between canals and railways. Curiously, the canal system — amounting to between two and three thousand linear miles, depending on interpretation — was one of the last nationalised industries to survive the Thatcherite freeing-up of market forces. Largely, one might cynically observe, because Whitehall simply overlooked its existence.
However, in 2012 the canals, and their associated assets, of England and Wales were transferred to a charity entitled the Canal & River Trust, though, bizarrely, those in Scotland remain government owned. Mr. Mullay's interesting analogy with preserved railways and their sources of income is pertinent, particularly in light of the fact that CRT continues to be partially Government funded, though in the future it is expected that they will become fiscally self-sufficient, however unlikely a scenario that might prove.
The editior should urge Mullay to publish an article or two illustrating examples of the rarely less than fraught relationship between canals and railways historically. I wouldn't be surprised at all if Network Rail wasn't indeed still legally responsible for the upkeep of odd, and probably overlooked, items of canal infrastructure, just as they are for residual railway structures such as viaducts.

Book reviews. 366

The Settle-Carlisle Railway. Paul Salveson. Marlborough: Crowood Press, paperback, 208pp, reviewed by David J[oy]?
"Why another book on the Settle-Carlisle Line?" Such are the brave opening words for this new work on what the author concedes is "almost certainly the most written-about railway in Britain, if not the world". Yet he convincingly sets out his terms of reference, stressing that his prime aim is to provide an accessible overview of the line's history aimed at the intelligent general reader and bringing the story up to date. Secondly, he wanted to bring in a strong social element, highlighting the importance of the people who worked on the line, those who travelled on it and the men and women who fought so hard to save it.
What really makes this book stand out from the crowd is that Paul Salveson is first and foremost a railwayman. His 45-year career ranged from signalman to senior management and in 2009 he received an MBE for services to the railway industry. The earlier period included a spell as a young goods guard in the 1970s on freights heading over the Settle-Carlisle. There were many memorable experiences, which form a fascinating chapter in their own right.
In the mid-1990s the author ran an oral history class for retired railway workers. Quotes from participants pepper these pages and bring alive such experiences as manning Ais Gill signal box in the days of proper winters or surviving the grimness of lodging houses at Carlisle. There are memories of a generation of drivers who would not go anywhere near a diesel and one who recalled hitting Settle Junction so fast on an up express that the engine went over on to one set of wheels with an enormous shower of sparks before righting itself!
The core of the book is more conventional with the first 100 pages devoted to a journey from Leeds to Carlisle before moving onto the building and operating of the line. Separate chapters look at the creation of railway communities with due emphasis on Hellifield and Garsdale, as well as "death and disaster" in the shape of accidents for which the line has become infamous.
The coverage of the long-threatened closure and ultimate reprieve can scarcely be faulted. The flood of Settle-Carlisle books that characterised those years has since become more of a trickle and thus it is especially useful to have chapters on the subsequent renaissance and developments through to the present day. An optimistic conclusion is preceded by pocket biographies that strike a refreshingly different note by focusing on 'Settle-Carlisle People', ranging from the Midland Railway's legendary James Allport through to the many who played fundamental roles in saving the line. Overall it is not difficult to see why Sir Peter Hendy, chairman of Network Rail, was so impressed with this book that he found time to "read the text from cover to cover in one sitting" before writing a thought-provoking foreword. He describes the line as "only saved by luck, political chance, a huge community effort, and by a little official subterfuge". It remains "hard to run" and he puts a figure of about £30 million on the amount spent by Network Rail to repair the 2016 Eden Brows collapse — an event that "even 15 years earlier would have been the end".
So, collectively is this a new and greatly welcome five-star book on a magnificent railway? Sadly, it is let down by just one thing and that is the illustrations. There are over 300 photographs, often tiny images grouped up to six to a page, which fails to hide the fact that many of them are on the down-side of poor. They are either too dark or have the subject too distant to be recognisable. A competent editor would have weeded these out and would certainly not have allowed the memorial stone in Cowgill churchyard to be shown three times — including two identical pictures. Others, such as Iittle-known photographs from the Settle and Carlisle Railway Trust, could then have been reproduced to a more generous size. As it is, there has to be dual recognition: Text***** lIIustrations**

Luxury railway travel: a social and business history. Martyn Pring. Pen & Sword Transport, 2019. 366pp. Reviewed by GS ***
Not that long ago it seemed that the era of luxury trains was drawing to its close. The Twentieth Century limited, The Blue Train, The Brighton Belle and many others were bowing out as the changing tastes of affluent passengers, and the cost of meeting high expectations, forced the railways into bitter changes. Those of us who sampled the 'real' Orient Express in its final days soon learned not to expect Hercule Poirot to be dining en route in style, or indeed at all. Such trains, it appeared, must surely follow the ocean liner and the flying boat into oblivion. But this was not to be, and although their purposes and character are quite different, recent years have seen an unforeseen revival: even the Belle herself is soon to be expensively and carefully recreated. This is one theme of Martyn Pring's interesting new book examining luxury trains, mainly in Great Britain, through a marketing man's eyes. We have enjoyed Haresnape on Pullman, Behrend on Wagons lits, and Kingston on Royal trains, but a wider-ranging study is welcome and the author's background in academia, tourism and brand-management brings a fresh outlook.
The author traces the development of luxury travel through the advent of vestibuled trains, opulent furnishings, dining and sleeping cars and other comforts. These were categorised in ways which reflected the gradations of the Victorian class system, but the growing number of middle class travellers soon sought the luxuries once offered only to the aristocracy. The author traces evolving perceptions of luxury through the railway age, showing that today's branding and marketing concepts are nothing new: found first in the new grand hotels, then in ocean liners, premium facilities came to the railway systems of the world during the nineteenth century.
But 'luxury' was relative: today's 'standard' passengers would not have found that the appointments of even a Royal Train met their requirements, and it was the gradual amelioration of the 'normal' which began the eclipse of the exceptional. The Midland Railway, by importing American Pullman cars and by abolishing second class tickets, led the way in repositioning itself to a discerning public. Speed, smooth-riding, sanitation and silence are today the perquisite of the humblest traveller, and if formal dining has largely vanished from ordinary trains one sometimes wonders just how Lucullan the food once served actually was.
Another important theme is the development and promotion of the concepts of 'holidays' and 'tourism', as they gradually grew into a major business. Individual railway companies successfully promoted themselves through association with particular 'geographies', so that, for instance, The Royal Scot, The Cornish Riviera Limited and The Pines Express defined the character of their owning railways in terms of the 'celebrity destinations' which they consciously defined.
A comprehensive account of luxury 'hotel trains', dining trains and the presentations of heritage railways brings the story to its unexpected conclusion. The book includes appendices covering the chronological development of passenger amenities on the Anglo-Scottish routes,lines to the West Country and to the South Coast. Generously-sized reproductions of coloured railway posters of different generations perfectly complement the text. There is an extended bibliography and the book is well presented, as we have come to expect from this publisher.
A health warning is perhaps due to readers unused to the argot and enthusiasms of the marketing world: some of the terminology is unfamiliar, occasionally becoming an impediment to understanding, but this is a lively take on a neglected topic.

Cromford and High Peak by rail and trail. Vic Mitchell and Keith Smith.
Uttoxeter to Buxton via Ashbourne. Vic Mitchell and Keith Smith.
Buxton to Stockport including Chinley and Peak Forest. Paul Shannon
All three published by the Middleton Press, All reviewed by DWM
As your Editor presented me with not one but three publications from the Middleton Press for consideration I felt as that raw redcoat recruit in the magnificently politically-incorrect film Zulu must have felt. "Why us, Colour Sergeant, why us?" "Cos we're 'ere, lad" growled the magnificently bewhiskered Colour Sergeant Bourne "and there's nobody else!"
Regular readers of this column will know of this reviewer's ambivalence when faced with the products of the Middleton Press. It is a very worthy aspiration to attempt the complete coverage of Britain's railways with a pictorial encyclopaedia and the production values of the whole series cannot be faulted. However, the very uniformity of the volumes somehow seems to militate against them, the pictures themselves are often a very mixed bunch swinging wildly between some real historical gems and 'holiday snaps' and regularly the pictorial captions are a glorious missed opportunity. In this reviewer's opinion only the imaginative use of old Ordnance Survey maps is a consistent high point through the publications.
Cromford ond High Peak by Rail Trail** is a good case in point. The coverage of the western (Whaley Bridge) end of the line and the delightfully preserved Steeple Grange light Railway is good but some of the captions, to plates 2 and 9 for example, are in the realms of Edward Lear. All in all it is difficult to see how this book adds a great deal to the general canon of railway knowledge.
Uttoxeter to Buxton via Ashboume** benefits somewhat from covering the lesser-known line from Uttoxeter to Ashbourne but is in danger of duplicating the work of the CH&PR book once Parsley Hay is reached.
Buxton to 5tockport including Chinley and Peak Forest *** is, in your reviewer's opinion, the best of the three volumes. As well as the currently-open line from Buxton down to Stockport it has extensive coverage of the 'closed' Midland line through Dove Holes Tunnel which lost its passenger traffic in 1968 but continues to handle large quantities of limestone traffic from the quarries around Buxton.
It maybe, to use an old Derbyshire expression, that these three books have arrived at Buxton 'first too late'. Backtrack readers will recall some years ago that the railways of the Buxton area were comprehensively covered by books from Foxline Publishing. Whether or not these offerings from the Middleton Press add a great deal to the story will be up to the purchaser/reader to judge?

The Corris Railway the story of a Mid-Wales slate railway. Peter Johnson, Pen and Sword Transport, 208pp. Reviewed by DWM *****
This stylish volume does nothing but add to the ever-increasing reputations of the author and publisher in the world of railway literature.
Nothing less than a traditional 'line history' - and none the worse for that - this splendidly produced, remarkably illustrated and impressively researched book does full justice to the Corris Railway, perhaps one of the lesser-known slate and latterly, preserved railways, in the mountains of Wales. The story is taken chronologically, from the inception of the line - when steam traction was specifically barred - through to the 'tramway' era, grouping and eventual preservation. The 'tramway' era refers to the ownership of the Corris by the impressively- named Imperial Tramways 659乐彩 limited. Whilst retaining the focus on serving the slate quarries, Imperial embraced steam power, offered a passenger service and eventually went into the field of road motor tours, cooperating with the Great Western and Cambrian Railways.
The Corris was incorporated into the Great Western in 1930, although the GW's general manager at the time was surely lames Milne ('Castle' Class No.7001 refers) and not John as mentioned in the text? Closure came in 1948, as a result of the weather rather than the proposals of the Railway Executive. The sixties saw the establishment of a museum at Corris and 2002 the running again of trains between Corris and Maesporth.
The text is a mixture of formality, reference to Acts of Parliament, directors' reports and the like leavened with anecdotes and reference to personalities such as the mercurial Mr. Dix, the original general manager under Imperial. The photographs are a splendidly-chosen collection which supports the narrative and the transition to colour images following the closure of the line and its subsequent preservation is an inspired touch. The use of original maps, in the endpapers and the early pages of the book, really brings the text to life and is another point of recommendation for the book.
The book has a detailed bibliography and a useful index. For those readers who like to go into real minutiae a series of six appendices covers areas such as locomotives, planning applications whilst Board of Trade returns from 1872 to 1930 show exactly what was spent on what. For those who can read between the lines these figures probably give the truest reflection of the gentle decline of the railway.
Your reviewer was very impressed with this book. It came as a great relief to him to be offered the chance to comment on something which is so much more than simply a set of repetitive pictures with often superficial captions. This book really adds to the store of railway knowledge. It deserves to serve as the 'standard history' of the railway for the foreseeable future. It is a superb production and comes highly recommended.

Just another day at Totnes. R.C. Riley. rear cover
Wonderful detail in 1955 panoramic view with two 2-6-2Ts visible and evidence of another locomotive at head of short freight train which included an insulated container. Western National single-deck half-cab bus; Daws Creameries factory, milk tank wagons and creamery vehicles. The more one looks, the more one fins

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