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Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 53 (1947)

Key file

Issue No. 653 (15 January)

New Southern locomotives. 1
The admirable address given by Bulleid to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, to which we refer on another page, was outstanding in its interest and more especially so in that part which made reference to a proposed further departure from the long-accepted canons in steam locomotive design.
When dealing with his express locomotives of the Merchant Navy class in a paper read before the same Institution, Bulleid made a great point of the means adopted to encase the valve gear and the inside motion in general and now, after expenence with this arrangement which would appear to have given every satisfaction, it is not altogether surprising that this particular design feature should be carried further and, in fact, when commenting on the previous design we rather hinted at the project by pointing out that the same idea could have been applied to the, at that time, relatively new six coupled engines with inside cylinders and motion. The latest proposal goes, however, much further and constitutes a complete departure from existing practice though, at nhe same time, is not, at any rate so far as the engine design is concerned, by any means new. Many suggestions have been made involving the application of some form of high speed totally enclosed engine to locomotive requirements, and it will no doubt be recalled that two locomotives fitted with engines of this kind were supplied to the Egyptian State Railways some few years ago, while in our impression of 15 October 1946 we described a locomotive for the Chemin de Fer du Nord equipped with enclosed three cylinder engine units geared to three pairs of driving wheels and working on the uniflow system. Other similar proposals could be enumerated, for the fact is that throughout its long life the steam locomotive, as we still know it, has often been threatened with extinction. This is true of the engines and also the boiler. Both have their shortcomings in full measure; with that, all will agree. On the other hand , as yet, no one has produced anything better, though often alternatives ,have been tried which should, on paper, be an improvement, but have more often than not turned out to be much worse. So far as the boiler is concerned, experience has been had with the water tube type working at a high steam pressure and in America and elsewhere water tube firebox constructions of different kinds have been extensively tried. So far, none of these has been sufficiently successful as to warrant adoption.
In the matter of the engines—that is, the cylinders and motion parts—while the arrangement in universal use remains as Stephenson left it, great Improvements have been made, particularly dunng recent years. Improved bearings of the more usual kinds and ,the adoption in many mstances of roller bearing assemblies seem to be giving excellent service, so that we frequently hear of engines running well over 100 000 miles between shoppings.
So far as thermal efficiency is concerned modern steam locomotives give a reasonably good account of themselves. The ratio between the work done in the cylinders to that theoretically possible is reasonably satisfactory, when the temperature ranges through which the engines must be worked are given due consideration; and the same may be said of the boiler. In fact, so long as exhaust must. be made to atmosphere and at a pressure sufficient to provide the induced draught reguired for steam production, the possibilities offered for substantial jrnprovements in cylinder efficiencies are strictly limited. There is, .however, room for considerable improvement in the power obtainable from given cylinders, and it seems entirely possible that relatively small cylinders with an efficient valve gear and the opportunity offered by large ports in proportion to cylinder volumes may prove beneficial in this respect.
What we have said is simply the historical record up to the present and should not be con- strued as being in any measure a deterrent to further effort. Bulleid has shewn himself well able to depart from the beaten path with much success and, when the new engines are completed, there is no doubt that their working will be followed with keen interest. Wie look forward to seeing these engines in operation, and in the meantime congratulate the designer on his courage in working out something different in steam locomotive construction.

L.M.S.R.  1
F.C. Johansen had been appointed Deputy Scientific Research Manager. . K. Cameron had been appointed Locomotive Superintendent, Corkerhill. W. Russell succeeded . K. Cameron as District Locomotive Superintendent, Perth, and J. M' Crae succeeded. Russell as Assistant District Locomotive Superintendent, Polmadie.

L.N.E.R. electrification. 1
In connection with the work in progress between Liverpool Street, Fenchurch Street, and Shenfield, Coburn Road Station had been closed permanently and Bethnal Green ceased to be served by trains on the Stratford line.

South African Royal Train. 2-4. 6 illoustrations
Eight coaches supplied by Metropolitan Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. in a very short time to the reqirements of M.M. Loubser. Illustrations: exterior of King's carriage; all remainder interiors: Royal Lounge; His Majesty's Study; His Majesty's Bedroom; Her Majesty's Bedroom; Princesses State Room

New L.M.S. locomotives. 5-6. 4 illustrations,, 2 diagrams. (side & front. elevationss.)
Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 and 2-6-2T. Illustrations show interior of cab on 2-6-0 and footplate view of tender cab,

Central Line to Stratford.. 6,
On 3 December 1946 the Minister of Transport opened the 4¼ miles extension of the Central Line to Stratford. This—although only a part of the ultimate scheme to Ongar—will considerably relieve one of the worst of London's traffic problems. Starting from the existing Liverpool Street Station the extension has stations at Bethnal Green, Mile End, and Stratford. Practically the whole of the distance is in tunnel which has been driven under conditions of exceptional difficulty through the old East London marshes beneath the water- logged land around the River Lea and its tributaries; the successful completion of this work represents one of the most notable engineering triumphs of recent years. The rails are in 300 ft. lengths and an additional step taken to reduce noise is the lining of the tunnel at wheel level with sound absorbing composition. It is hoped to open the line to Loughton and Hainault at the end of [947 and to Newbury Park and Ongar in [948.

G.W.R. 6
Six 0-6-0 tender engines, Nos. 3202 to 3208, and two 2-6-2 tank engines, Nos. 4148 and 4149, had been completed at Swindon Works. Four engines had been withdrawn from service, viz., 2-6-0 No. 2657; 0-6-0T Nos. 1725. 2723 and 2773·

Southern Railway. 6
A series of 24 three-coach units is under construction, half of which will be completed in time for next summer's traffic and the other half by the end of 1947. Each unit has two semi-saloon type coaches with 96 Third Class seats, while the centre coach is of the compartment type with 24 First and 24 Third Class seats.

Mr. O.V.S. Bulleid's Presidential Address Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 7-10.
On 18 October Mr. O.V.S. BuIJeid, M.I.M.E., M.I.L.E., Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Southern Railway and President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers for 1946-47, delivered his Presidential Address; we are pleased to present an abstract of this interesting description of the duties and many problems with which the Chief Mechanical Engineer has to contend.
After referring to. the statutory certificate regarding the maintenance of the stock in good condition, which C.M.Es are called upon to sign each year, the President went on to say: the chief mechanical engineer has to provide the means whereby the passengers can be carried safely, comfortably, quickly, and punctually, and goods can be delivered expeditiously and in good order. The provision of rolling stock to satisfy these requirements involves constant progress in design and manufacturing processes to ensu.re that the stock is kept abreast of the times in respect to efficiency, reliability, and suitability, and that the costs are commercially reasonable.
Whilst the chief mechanical engineer must profit from aul developments in other fields of mechanical engineering affecting rolling stock design, he has to be convinced that all changes made will be of lasting value, for the life of rolling stock is long, and hiis is the responsibility for looking after it in service. Further, complete reliability throughaut each journey is demanded, in so far as it can be achieved, because the dislocatian in traffic on our congested railways, resulting from breakdawn, has consequences out of all perspective to the cost of repair. These reasons explain an apparent tendency to. conservatism in design, and a comparative reluctance to adopt new ideas. The majar responsibilities of the chief mechanical engineer are to. keep in service the largest possible percentage of the stock of locomotives, and to see that whilst in service the locomotives require as little attention as possible and that no defects occur that would affect their time-keeping whilst working trains. His ability to achieve this depends upon the quality of the staff and equipment at his disposal. Taking an average week's figures, 5 per cent. of the total number of locomotives stopped are in the main works, and 10 per cent. in the running sheds, i.e., 15 per cent. are not available for service. The analysis of the work required on the 5 per cent. stopped in the works indicates the major directions  in which improvements in detail design, materials of construction, and manufacturing procedure are required. Likewise, a similar analysis of the 10 per cent. stopped in the running sheds is a pointer to the particular details which should receive attention if availability is to be increased.
If the engines dealt with at the main works are examined we find that 40 per cent. were taken out of traffic because of defects in boilers, and 60 per cent. because of defects in engines and running gear.
The man-hours spent on each general repair average 5,.000, of which 1,250 are spent on boiler work, and 3,750 on the rest of the locomotive and tender.
The proaportion. (10 per cent.) of engines not available for service at running sheds represents those under examination and under repair. This is a serious reduction in availability. As regards expenditure on maintenance, when the large number of depots over which the stopped engines are distributed, and the number of repair staff employed in them are considered, its effect is to increase such costs very greatly.
The periodical examinations of locomotives in running sheds are determined by the time interval which experience has shown a particular cornponent will run normally without risk of failure in traffic. The fact that the examinations are necessary should be taken as an indication of the need for improvement in design or material because each examination means the loss of the engine from traffic and the unprofitable expenditure of man-hours,
Failures in service in the case of locomotives are defined on the Southern Railway as follows:-
(a) An engine which has to come off its train owing to any mechanical or boiler defect, even if no delay is caused; or
(b) An engine which, from mechanical or boiler defect, causes a delay to its train of 10 minutes or over.
In 1938 the average mileage run per  failure so defined was 131,264, the total number of failures being 353.
Whilst the mileage per failure is high, the total number of failures means the loss of 353 engines to the operating department for a shorter or longer period.
Each failure is investigated with respect to design, materials, and workmanship as the contributory cause. The way the locomotive was handled in service, and when and why and how it was last repaired at a shed, are also considered. It is often difficult to decide the true cause of certain failures owing to the destruction of the evidence by the failure, but when persistent defects are recorded, and when a painstaking investigation has been made, the design or material of the part concerned must be altered. The fi.gures quoted and the observations made follow from many years of sustained effort to obtain better results, so it will inevitably be suggested that the accepted methods of design or construction cannot be expected to give substantially better results. The results were as gaad as could be expected with the designs, materials, finish, and methods of operation which were used.
Consequently, if the higher level of achievement in continuity of service, which is now required, is to be reached, a new conception of the steam locomotive is also needed.
Such thoughts caused us to question accepted ideas and forced us to investigate the locomotive as regards (1) the design, (2) use, and (3) servicing.
The very age of the steam locomotive has acted against its further development, for its bad features have come to be accepted as inherent and inevitable. It is these bad features which enable other forms of traction to compete with it, and consequently such features must be eliminated if the steam locomotive is to survive.
Investigations soon showed that there was room for improvement under all three heads. Some of the directions in which these can be effected are as follows;-
(I) The locomotive boiler, whilst a wonderful evaporator of water, is troublesome to maintain. The origin of the trouble lies in the water used. The scale deposited is the chief cause for which locomotives are taken out of service, as the boilers require washing out about once in every ten days. Apart from the other difficulties, this scale and dirt prejudice the use of feed water heating, owing to the diffioulty of keeping the equipment clean.
(2) The use of coal, especially inferior grades, also causes loss of service because the fires have to be cleaned frequently and this reduces the time throughout which the engine can be operated continuously, and thus lessens its availability.
(3) As the mechanical parts cannot be relied upon to run from one general overhaul to the next, they have to be examined after relatively short mileages.
(4) The preparation of the locomotive for service is difficult and takes too long.
(5) The locomotives ought to be more convenient and comfortable, cleaner, and less fatiguing to drive.
(6) The disposal of the locomotive after service also left much to be desired, and the practice of letting the boiler cool and relighting it at short intervals was not only wasteful of fuel, but aotually harmful to the boiler. Before the recent war the general lines on which the problem should be attacked had become clear. The whole of the water used by the locomotives throughout the railway system would have to be treated; otherwise the benefits obtained from the treated water would be lost by the admixture of untreated water.
Boilers would have to be fitted with blow down equipment. Hot-water exchange plants would have to be generally used in conjunction with shed equipment so that the boilers of engines ready for service would be maintained in steam at about 125  psi.
This would also enable engines to be moved under their own steam to a suitable road outside the actual building for lighting up the fire; thereby enabling the building to be fitted with doors which could be closed and consequently provide a much more congenial atmosphere in which to carry out examination and repair. Washing out the boilers would have to be made a much easier job, and more attention be given to the layout of the pressure mains in the sheds to economise labour Hand firing of large coal would have to give place gradually to firmg by mechanical stoker to relieve the fireman of the manual labour entailed, to enable a wider source of. supply of fuel to be made available, to obviate Iimitation on steam production which the physical capacity of the fireman imposes, and so allow greater power to be developed by the locomotives.
The locomotives ought to incorporate rocking and dump grates with hopper ashpans, the former to keep the fire clean en route and the latter to facilitate the disposal of ash at the running shed. Improved coaling plants, watering equipment, and ash-handling arrangements would have to be provided to expedite. these operations. We even looked torward to the locomotives being refuelled during station stops.
Much greater mileages per day were required from the locomotive, and this means a marked reduction in the time lost in preparing them, taking fueJ. and water, cleaning fires, dealing with ashes, etc.
The preparation of the engines, including oiling, ought to be transferred to shed staff specially trained for such duties so that the fullest use might be made of the enginemen to drive trains.
When we came to consider the design of the locomotives,. we found there was room tor development in the boiler and in the rest of the machine it we were to improve It as regards reliability, availabihty, and efficiency.
The Merchant Navy class locomotives, the first to be built after these investigations were begun, introduced certain innovations mto English practice.
A large amount of research work had to be done on weld radiography on the stresses set up in welding, then removal or reduction to acceptable limits which had to be determmed, and on the training and classification of welders before the further developments incorporated in the boilers, frames, etc., of the West Country engines could be permitted.
The satisfactory performance of the latter engines in service confirms the soundness of the arguments on which the changes were made. fhese engines are to be regarded not as final designs, but rather as stages m locomotive development.
A wide range of research work is in hand. The more interestmg investigations are those being carried out into-
(a) New modes of stay-to-plate fixing with the objects of speed and economy in manufacture and longer life in service by prevention of seepage and plate cracking.
(b) Photo-elastic stress surveys of axles, with special reference to the use of internal fillets as a means of reducing bearing pressure by extending the bearing surface to the full width of the journal.
(c) The effect of heat input and mechanical restraint upon welds in heat-sensitive steels, with the object of eliminating tyre slip in tyres applied by shrinking-on only and without fastenings of any of the known designs.
Ingenuity and expertness in locomotive design has become of even greater importance to-day because of the great increases in costs of manufacture, operation, and' maintenance, following the increases in wages and cost of material of con- struction and fuel which have taken place in recent years.
The increase in manufacturing wages rates is at least 65 per cent., and if we are cautious and think that the working week may be reduced to 40 hours without loss of earnings, then the in- crease we shall encounter will be 94 per cent. Materials of construction have increased in cost by 70 per cent., and, when the effect of shorter working hours is felt, the increase may well reach 100 per cent. above pre-war levels.
In the case of the locomotive, the cost that matters is the cost per loaded train mile. The principal items of cost for constructing, maintaining, and operating .steam locomotives are- Interest on capital.
Provision for renewal. Repairs. Operating wages (drivers and firemen). Fuel and water. The attainment of greater availability by development in design, by improved shed equipment, and by the better operating methods made possible thereby would-. .
(a) Reduce interest on capital by spreadmg the charge over a greater number of loaded train-miles.
(b) Reduce the provision necessary for renewal for the same reason, locomotives being withdrawn from service only because of obsolescence, and not because of non- repairable wear and tear.
(c) Reduce repairs by. the. us!': of materials giving longer service life, by improved manufacturing processes, by producing methods to reduce the cost of the work by reduction in waste of labour and materials, by better organisation, and, above all, by the elimination of runmng repairs hy the methods already indicated.
(d) Reduce the incidence of operating. wages by increasing the available, capacity for loaded train-miles per driver's hour.
(e) Reduce fuel and water cost, both by increasing the loaded. train-miles between each occasion of hghtmg up and disposal. and also by reducing the standmg time for servicing the engine.
(f) Reduce the cost of maintenance by reorganisation and re-equipment of the depots to meet the revised needs.
It may be remarked in this connection that, when considering alternative forms of power the increased interest and renewal charges due to the great increase in the first cost of the new rolling stock and the capital expenditure on fixed installations can only be met by reducing fuel and water costs and maintenance expenditure} no saving in operating wages being possible asa general rule.
What sort of locomotive may we expeot to see, if it is to meet the majority of our future requirements? It is reasonable to expect it to satisfy the following demands and to include the following new features. The locomotive should be built so as-
(1) To be able to run over the majority of the company's lines.
(2) To be capable of working ail classes of trains up to speeds of 90 m.p.h.
(3) To have its whole weight available for braking and the highest possible percentage thereof for adhesion.
, (4) To be equally suitable for running in both directions without turning, with unobstructed look-out.
(5) TOo be ready for service at short notice.
(6) To be almost continuously available.
(7) To be suitable for complete "common use."
(8) To run not less than 100,000 miles between general overhauls with little or no attention at the running sheds.
(9) To cause minimum wear and tear to the track.
(10) To use substantially less fuel and water per drawbar horse-power developed. It should incorporate-
(a) A boiler of new design from which stay and tube trouble has been eliminated.
(b) High steam pressure to enable reduced cylinder dimensions to be used, and new design of cylinders with small clearance volume.
(c) Feed water treatment by equipment on the locomoti ve itself.
(d) Feed water heating by exhaust steam.
(e) All moving parts enclosed and continuously lubricated; all axleboxes wIth roller bearings.
(t) Remote control with driving cabs at both ends.
A new type of Southern engine has been designed, the construction of five of which has been authorised. The engme will incorporate. the following features and, it is hoped, will satisfy the desiderata given.
The locomotive is carried on two six-wheeled bogies, the general design of which follows that of the bogies designed for use under the company's electric locomotives. These bogies have no centre pivot or bolster. The middle axle of each bogie is driven by a three-cylinder single-expansion engme. The engine develops a torque, the uniformity of which is comparable with that of a nose-supported electric traction motor, but has a higher speed range, and the unsprung weight is less. The capacity of the boiler has been made greater, relative to the cylinder horse-power, than in the case of any previous Southern locomotive. The cabs at the ends will give an improved look-out.
The engines are intended for working fast passenger trains of 480 tons weight over the difficult Southern Railway main line, and goods and mineral trains of up to 1,200 tons; that is to say, something above the heaviest trains that would be required on the system. They carry sufficient fuel for 200 miles. The address—which was well illustrated— concluded with a resume of the great contribution to the war effort made by the C.M.E's department of the Southern Railway.

L M.S.R. 10
New locomotives in service are: 2-6-4 Tank class 4P (built at Derby) Nos. 2253 to 2258; 4-6-0 class 5 Mixed Traffic (built at Horwich) No. 4987; The following had been withdrawn: 0-6-2 class 2PT No. 6871 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-8-0 class 7F No. 12861 (L. &Y.R.); 0-6-0 class 3F No. 17610 (Caledonian), class 2F Nos. 28503 (L.& N.W.R.), 3227, 3438, 3535 (Midland); 0-6-2 class 2FT Nos. 7705, 27572, 27606, 27623 (L. & N.W.R.).
Plaques of the original crest—-the gift of Sir Robert Ropner, Bt.—were presented to L.M.S. "Royal Scot" class 4-6-0 locomotive No. 6133 The Green Howards at a ceremony held at Leeds City Station. Mr. R.A. Riddles, C.B.E., Vice-President of the L.M.S. Railway, presided at the unveiling of the plaques by General Sir Harold E. Franklyn, K.C.B., D.S.O., M.C.

Irish Railway Record Society. 10
The first meeting of this recently formed society was held last month in Dublin, Mr. Kevin A. Murray, presiding. Two short papers were read, "The Construction of Time Tables" by J. Macartney Robins and "Locomotive Building in Ireland " hv R.N. Clements (KPJ: presumably in an early issue of Society's Journal).

Personal
L.J. Le Clair, A.G.T.C., M.l.Mech.E., M.l.Loco.E., M.lnst.T., A.M.I.E.E., retired from the position of Engineer with theWestinghouse Brake and Signal Co., Ltd. He served his apprenticeship in the Locomotive Shops of the Caledonian Railway at St. Rollox. Le Clair subsequently spent some time as Chief tester in the Engineering Dept. of Guinness' Brewery, Dublin. He was appointed, thereafter, first as Works Manager and afterwards as Assistant General Manager of the Freinville Works of the French Westinghouse Brake Co.  He returned to England and was for 14 years with G.D. Peters and Co., Ltd. During the 1914-18 war he was Manager of their Slough Works. He thereafter joined the Westinghouse Brake Co. He first handled their Vacuum Brake Dept., hut for many years contacted their numerous customers for Tramway, Diesel Rail Car, Diesel Locomotive and other brake business, travelling extensively throughout Europe as well as India and the U.S.A. Le Clair's services are being retained by the Westinghouse Brake and Signal Co., Ltd., in a consultative capacity.

A rail centenary and a new line 100 years after. 10-12. illustration
CTOBER 1946 witoessed the centenary of the opening of the railway between Seamer and Hull. As early as 1834 a project was afoot to construct a line from Bridlington Quay to join the Leeds arid Selby Railway at Selby, but, receiving littLe support nothing happened until the building of the line from Driffield to Market Weighton (to give its proper name, the Scarborough, Bridlington and West Riding Junction Railway), which had a separate existence from 1885 to 1914, when it was absorbed by the then North Eastern.
Matters lay dormant for a time, but in 1844/45 the Hull and Selby Railway sought Parliamentary powers to construct a branch line frem Hull to Bridlington and in the 1845 session, powers were given to the York and North Midland Railway for a line Seamer to Bridlington (19¾ miles) and to the Hull and Selby Railway for the line Hull to Bridlington (31 miles). This was a notable Parliamentary session, for in all 247 miles of railway were authorised at an estimated cost of 3½ million pounds.
As might be expected, the Hull-Bridlington opening was attended with a ceremony and it was graced by the presence of George Hudson (the Railway King) himself, supported by sufficient numbers of his (then) loyal and enthusiastic supporters to fill a train of 57 vehicles on the journey from Hull to Bridlington.
The scene in the old station in Railway Street, Hull, is vividly described (this was the first station in Hull and was used until 8th May 1848, when the first Paragon Station was opened), "A vast concourse of ladies and gentlemen had assembled and every carriage that could be spared from the many lines that acknowledge Mr. Hudson's sway had been congregated, and strange contrasts they afforded. From the superb' Tourist,' a circular-headed, glass-roofed saloon, looking like a conservatory on wheels, and the 'Coquette' with its pretty and quaint doll's house contrivances, through the extravagantly beautifully finished carriages from Manchester, and the comfortable ones from the Midlands, down to the vile old drab-trimmed, worn-out cast-offs and the really better second classers, even to open third class and luggage wagons—all were there and all were acceptable—or rather would have been were it not for the rain and the boisterous searching wind.' Just before eleven George Hudson arrived from York with a fresh supply of carriages drawn by an engine appropriately named after him, decorated with laurel and perhaps less appropriately "surmounted with an Imperial Crown." Eventually, the train started, hauled by three engines, Y & N.M. No. 8 Hudson (renamed Comet), 2-2-2 5 ft. 6 in., 12½-in x 18-in", built by Robt. Stephenson and Co., 1840; Y. & N.M. No. 9 Antelope, 2-2-2 (illustrated), 5 ft. 3 in., 13-in x 29-in, built by Shepherd and Todd, 1840, and Y. & N.M. No. 10 Ariel, 2-2-2, 6 ft., 13-in x 24in, built by Shepherd and Todd,. 1840. Besides the invited guests, two bands were on board to enliven the journey with music amd "at all the principal stations other bands were placed who played suitable pieces as the train approached and past." By the time the train reached Cottingham, the weather god had relented and the wet and dismal thirds were cheered " by the shining forth of the glorious sun," the remainder of the day being fine. The account says vast crowds had assembled at Cottingham, Beverley and Driffield to greet this first train, and from Driffield to Bridlington ," or Burlington as the natives call it ") the road was lined with people. The country we are told "is so level that the line presented, not merely no engineering difficulties, but absolutely required little more than consolidating the ground and laying down the rails at once—the entire cost was about £350,000. The engineers were Messrs. Stephenson and Burtenshaw and the contractors Jackson and Co. of Driffield.
On arrival (" in perfect safety!") at Bridlington, the train was met by upwards of 2,000 persons, a procession of Odd Fellows bearing banners with suitably inscribed sentiments on and the inevitable band.
Some 1,400 to 1,600 guests sat down at Bridlington to an admirably well-served repast; they had previously been thoughtfully provided with tickets, not only for the Journey but for this added amenity.
The usual toasts were honoured and an address from the inhabitants of Bridlington was presented to Mr. Hudson who, apparently, whilst declining to accept all the credit for the undertaking, and praising the engineers, nevertheless managed to weave in a considerable amount of propaganda material. He praised the enterprise of the English people, pointing out that whereas in England at that time there were 4,000 miles of railway, in France there were only 500. He would repeat again and again that the railway interest was England's interest, and the public interest was "to obtain what it had an undoubted right to, namely, a fair return for its capital and enterprise." He drank " Success and prosperity to Bridlington " and complimented the people on the beauty and salubrity of its situation.
And so the great day closed with the return of the train to Hull amidst renewed excitement en route and the prospect of a heavy dinner for some 420 of its passengers.
A slight technical hitch occurred over the dinner, for the guests were invited for 5 p.m. and the doors of the Assembly Room were not opened until 7. Anyway, the meal amply made up for any disappointment for we learn that " for profusion, delicacy, style and quality, it could scarcely be surpassed." The wines, we are told, were particularly excellent—which probably ac- counted for the optimistic and flowery speeches which followed.
And now, a century later, the L.N.E.R. embark on an addition to that line which is singularly fitting, and one which would have received the blessing of the " Railway King." In its extension between Filey and Hunmanby to Butlin's Holiday Camp at Filey Bay, provision is being made for hundreds of thousands of holidaymakers, and, with the building developments recently foreshadowed in that district, for very large numbers of residents too. The opening of the century-old line was attended "with considerable eclat"; perhaps the opening of the new one will not be so picturesque, but no one can doubt it will serve an equally useful purpose ..
One wonders what the top-batted, frock-coated men and the flower-begarlanded ladies of the first train to run on this line would think of the modems going for a joyous holiday in the luxury recreational centre established by Mr. Butlin.

Spring borne shoegear. 12. illustration
An article on page 152, Vol. 52 describing a steel shoe beam developed by London Transport stated that further improvements could be made by dispensing with shoebeams, thus reducing the unsprung weight on the wheels. The illustration shows a method of achieving this whilst at the same time obviating the deterior- steel face engages, when the shoe is off the conductor rail, with a lever which is carried on a Silentbloc bush from a pin clamped in an extension of the main bracket. The opposite end of the lever engages with an adjustable stop mounted on the axle box. The wing extensions on the laminated wood arms and the leatheroid strip attached thereto arc flash guards to prevent an arc from the shoe striking back on to the earthed metal of the main bracket. The disc on the bottom of the spring hanger is also provided as an arc barrier. With the shoe on the conductor rail the manganese face of the shoe arm is not in contact with the lever an.i the shoe is therefore free to follow irregularities in the current rail and to accommodate for change in truck height due to varying deflection of the springs.
When the collector shoe leaves the conductor rail the distance which it can drop (the important factor) is limited by the manganese steel face coming into contact with the lever which is posi- tioned by the axle hox. Any lowering of the truck frame due to spring deflection causes the lever to rotate and raise the shoe by an amount equal to jhe fall of the truck frame and vice versa. The height of the shoegear caused by its being unsprung and slung between axle boxes which have some relative movement.
The mechanism is carried from the truck frame by a bracket attached to a length of channel iron. At the lower end of this bracket a pivot pin carries an arm formed by two pieces of laminated wood synthetic resin-bonded and impregnated. The lower ends of the arm are connected together by the bracket which is bushed to carry the pin which also passes through holes in lugs cast integral with the collector shoe. The upper ends of nhe arms are connected together by a bridge piece which is faced with manganese steel. This manganese The height of the collector shoe relative to the run ning rail therefore remains constant which is the desired condition. This arrangement virtually eliminates the unsprung weight of the shoegear.

MECHANICAL STOKERs.-Over 20,000 locomotives equipped with mechanical stokers are said to be in use in the U.S.A., and of course these fittings are to be found in Canada, India, U.S.S.R., Australia and many other countries. As long ago as 1930 trials were made with them on 2-10-0 and 4-6-2 engines on the Northern Railway of France, and subsequently they were fitted to the Etat 4-8-2 class. A new type was designed in 1939 for embodiment in future steam locomotive classes, and the use of a lower-grade coal was envisaged.

Southern Railway electrification and diesel traction scheme. 13
Sir Eustace Missenden, General Manager of the Southern Railway, recently announced that the Southern Railway Board, continuing its progressive policy, has approved large scale plans for the extension of electrification and for the adoptioq of diesel traction for subsidiary services. The new proposals-which at to-day's prices will cost some £15.000,009--wil1 affect services throughout South East England and will result in the complete elimination of steam locomotives from the lines of the former London Brighton and South Coast and South Eastern and Chatham Railways.
The Southern Railways owns 2.156 route miles of track. oi which. 714 miles are already electrified. The latest proposals involve the further conversion to electric traction of 284 route miles (610 miles of single line track. including sidings) on the main lines to the Kent coast and on secondary routes to Brighton
All. passenger trains and principal freight trains in the counties of Kent, Surrey and Sussex will eventually be worked electrically, diesel traction being used for feeder services and local goods trains. Steam services to and .from the London termini of London Bridge, Victoria, Charing Cross, Cannon Street, etc., will be withdrawn. The Southern Railway owns to-day over 1,800 steam locomotives. When the proposed conversion is completed the number will be reduced to under 800. Electrification schemes already undertaken save some 400.000 tons of coal per annum and the latest extensions, together with the adoption of diesel traction.will result in a further saving of 300.000 tons per annum.
The time which will elapse before the conversion is complete depends on availabilitv of material and labour hut it is hoped that the work will be finished by 1955. Considerable research was undertaken before the present scheme was approved. officers visiting Switzerland and the U.S,A: to study the latest developments in electrification and  diesel traction.
As a result of the present scheme the services in South East .England will be speeded up and a more frequent service provided.
The electric locomotives will generally follow that described  in the Locomotive of February 1942; it is understood that the diesel locomotives will be of from 400  to 600 h.p.

Obituary . 13
It is with regret that we have to record the death of F.W Carr who held the position of Mechanical Engineer. L.N E.R.. Stratford, since 1938.
Death of W.S. Edwards, Managing Director of W.G. Bagnall, Ltd., Locomotive Builders of Stafford.  Edwards was Vice-President of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers besides being a prominent figure in Engineering circles in Staffordshire.
We also regret to announce the death of G. Wuthrich. M.I.E.E .. General Manager and Chief Engineer of Messrs. Oerlikon Ltd.
Albert Jacquet died at Brussels in April. 1944, during the German occupation. He had always been intensely interested in railways and had a very wide knowledge of locomotive engineering and development. Born in 1866 he could well remember many of the older Belgian and French locomotives still running in the middle 1870s.  Later he became a well-known writer on locomotive historv ancl was a regular contributor to "The Locomotive." . Though he worked for several years in the engineering and management departments of the former Saint Leonard Locomotive Works at Liege. and later with the Brussels Tramways, he devoted most of his life-time to research work in connection with locomotive history and development.

Carriade lighting. 13
Though d.c. systems with axle-driven generator and battery are till in almost universal use for lighting passenger stock. proposals have been made to instal mall diesel-driven a.c -. sets on large main line passenger coaches abroad, or to have a steam turbine driven set for the whole train mounted on the-tender. The L.M.S.R. Royal train has a separate power car with a petrol-electric generating set.

Correspondence. 13

The Granville Express. Reginald B. Fellows
With reference to Mr. Vickery's letter in your issue of October. I ought. to have stated in my article that there were several variations in the official name of this express on the London Chatham and Dover Railway. It began in 1878 as The Granville and Westgate-on-Sea Special Express Train. but in June 1884. and for some years, Cliftonville was added to its title. Then, in the summer of 1894. the Chatham 659乐彩 put on a new express leaving Victoria at 17.15. Herne Hill (with City connection) at 17.25 and running non-stop to Herne Bay and thence to Westgate. Margate, Broadstairs and Ramsgate (arr. 19.20), which was officially named The Cliftonville Express. and the 15.25 from Victoria simply The Granville Express. There was no new up train called The Cliftonville so the 10.0 0 from Ramsgate retained its long title. Although the new Cliftonville Express was soon taken off, the 15.25 from Victoria continued to be called The Granville though the corresponding up train kept the long title. except in some working Time Tables.
As regards express fares, the Chatham 659乐彩's Time Tables for 1886. the year mentioned by Vickery, show express fares only between London and Dover. It will be found that the Graville always carried passengers at ordinary fares. hut in its first four years during the summer and early autumn months third class ticket holders were not conveyed by the train.

Dutch State Railways 659乐彩.  L. Derens.
Keelhoff in the November issue speaks of a non-stop express between Amsterdam and Rotterdam via The Hague. In the course of my article on the Holland Railway 659乐彩. I mentioned this non-stop service in the December. 1937, Issue of The Locomotive. I further inform Keelhoff that this service was run in competition With the non-stop expresses of the Dutch Rhenish Railway between the two cities via Gouda. which had the shorter distance, also in 70 minutes. of 73 km. against the Holland Railway s 85.6 km. The train was only a light one of three carriages and worked by the 7 ft. 2-4-0 engmes of the de Ruyter series built by Borsig. This service was inaugurated in October. 1886. and continued until June 1890.

The first locomotive in Natal. David H. Tew.
On page 181 of The Engineer. Vol. 10. September 14, 1860, there is a note to the effect that the Natal Railway was inaugurated on 26 June 1860. The locomotive used at the opening was manufactured hy Garrett Marshall and Co. of Leeds. and was named Natal. No description of the locomotive is given.

Reviews. 14

Railways and their future. Lord  Monkswell; Ernest Benn Ltd.
This is a popular treatise on railways and touches upon both technical and economic aspects. It ' can be recommended for those as yet. not unacquainted with the subject who are desirous of acqurrmg a general outline of the considerations involved.

Railway inspection; The Railway Gazette.
This booklet is an interesting. review of the supervision to which Railways in this country are subject. It refers to the early arrangements for inquiring into accidents and traces the procedure down to the present time.

Looomotive stock book, 1946. The Railway Correspondence and Travel Society.
Many of our readers will be familiar with this publication which was last published in 1939. The present edition not only shows the position of the locomotive stock of  the companies of Britain and Eire as at 31 December 1945, but also contains detailed particulars of the alterations which took place each year from 1939-1945. New features are a list of locomotives on loan and particulars of renumbering schemes. There are many illustrations and as always they are interesting.

Standard military railway bridges. Railway Gazette.
Railway bridging made a considerable contribution to victory in the recent war and the development made in this branch of the military art was well abreast of that made in other spheres. The booklet is a reprint of a series of articles in the Railway Gazette and contains descriptions and many interesting illustrations of the various types of bridges employed together with examples of their use. The erection times are extraordinary by any standards and it. is befitting that at least some of the magnificent work of those responsible for the design and erection of such structures should have been placed on record.

4-8-2 class 15F locomotives for the South African railway; Railway Gazette.
Reprint of article which appeared in the Railway Gazette. A folding general arrangement drawing is included and the whole forms a detailed and well illustrated account of these outstanding engines.

Conversion of locomotives from coal to oil burning; Railway Gazette.
Reprinted from the Railway Gazette this booklet deals with the Ministry of Transport plan for converting some 1,200 locomotives to oil burning and fully describes and illustrates the equipment used by the G.W.R. which was first in the field with the present change-over.

Longmoor Military Railway. Railway Gazette.
This is a reprint of a detailed description of this line which appeared in an issue of Railway Gazette in July. As is well known, this railway is the transportation training centre of the Corps of Royal Engineers and a perusal of the book and its many interesting illustrations will show how very adequately this training is carried out. We have no doubt that many, having read of the work done and the ground covered, will wish that they too could go through the course!

British locomotive types. 6th edition.
When bringing out the latest edition of this well-known and useful book of dimensions and diagrams the publishers took the opportunity to add details of new types, notably the 1000 class of the G.W.R., the converted Royal Scot class of the L.M.S.R., the A1 and A2/1 classes of the L.N.E.R., and the West Country class of the Southern Railway. At the same time alterations which have taken place in some of the engines previously included have been noted. There are particulars of 140 locomotives in this book which is now cloth bound.

Sectioned perspective view of cylinders and motion.
This is a reprint from the Railwav Gazette of a folding plate showing the cylinders and motion of an L.M.S. class 5 4-6-0 locomotive. The general style is similar to that of 'the 4-6-2 drawings previously.reviewed.

Universal directory of railway officials and railway year book, 1946-1947.
In consequence of a partial return to .peace-time conditions the latest edition of this comprehensive directory and book of reference has been subjected to far greater revision of its contents than was possible during the previous six years. This work is. now in its 52nd year and there is no doubt that the present edition will prove as valuable as its predecessors. In the scope of just over 500pages those responsible for its compilation have succeeded in condensing most comprehensive particulars of railways and their officials, throughout the world. By no means the least valuable feature.of this useful book is the system of indexing employed which contributes considerably to ready reference.

The Railway Handbook , 1946-1947.
With a return to more normal conditions this handbook includes considerable material which has not been available for some years. . A new feature—and one which is included as a matter of record and not for perpetuation—is a summary of damage, etc., caused to British Railways by enemy action. This is not by any means the only new feature in this book which will deservedly find a place on the bookshelf of many of those interested generally in railways.

L.N.E.R. renumbering. Quadrant Publications, Ltd., Huddersfield.
With the complete renumbering .of the L.N .E. locornotives it is often difficult to identify the original engme With the numbers now being allocated. Under these circumstances, this booklet is very welcome. By an elaborate series of tables it is possible to find the engine class of any particular number and to trace the old number of any renumbered engine and vice versa. In addition to the numbers, a list of the named engmes and a list of the classes is included .

Dunlop in war and peace, Sir Ronald Storrs, K.C.M.G., C.B.E., with a Preface by Sir J. George Beharrell, D.S.O.
Like other great industrial organistions Dunlop was suddenly called upon to turn its energies, enterprises and ingenuities from the purposes of peace to those of war. The story of this amazing transformation and all that it represented in the war effort is vividly described by Sir Ronald Storrs the well-known authority on the Middle East. He traces the history of Dunlop from its earliest days, which in itself is a fascinating story of industrial enterprise and descnbes the miraculous changes that had to be made to meet the ever-exacting demands for every kind of war service.

Positex, a new form of natural rubber latex with reversed charge. by C.M. Blow, Ph. D. The British Rubber Development Board, 19, Fenchurch Street. London, E.C·3 . .

Kutern, high speed machining copper. A material possessing the properties of copper but capable of much qnicker and easier machining to a fine surface finish. Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd.,

Guide to juvenile employment on  the main line railways.
A sixteen page booklet designed to give a brief outline of the scope and conditions of employment for boys and girls on the main line railways of Great Britain with notes on prospects for those who make railway transport their career, the railways have just issued a helpful and useful pamphlet with up to date rates of pay and many other particulars,

.Four new leaflets have just been published by the TImber Development Association. in their Timber In,forrr:anon Series. The titles are as fo11ows:- No. 21 T.D.A s LIbrary Service; No. 22 Structure of a Softwood; No. 23 Structure of a Hardwood; No. 24 Wood Waste Magic. Copies of these can be obtained free of charge from the Timber Development Association, Limited,

Issue No. 654 (15 February 1947)

L.M.S. Standard Types .15
Editorial presunavbly based on LMS press release. The Chief Mechanical Engineer's Department of the L.M.S. has recently made an interesting announcement on the subject of locomotive standardisation. The old idea that numerous designs were necessary to cover the re- quirements of varying services and routes was proved incorrect by the interchange which took place followmg grouping and modern development in design has greatly extended the scope of those types recently constructed. The advantage of t his development lies in the possibility of making se of the high in-built availability of the modern locomotive :by enabling it to take its turn on varying classes of 'traffic so as to attain. a high annual mileage over which to spread its capital and maintenance costs.
Since grouping the L.M.S. has built. new loco- motives to a strictly limited number of basic types, but stagnation in development has been avoided by introducing successrve modernised versions of these basic types, in which were in- corporated the latest improvements as they became available. '
Today, eleven locomotive types can cover the whole of the traffic requirements on the L.M.S.R. The types selected are as follows:- 4-6-2 (non-streamlined) 4-cyliinder passenger, Class 7; 4-6-0 Royal Scot) 3-cylinder passenger, Class 6; 4-6-0 2-cylinder mixed traffic, Class 5; 2-8-0; 2-cyhnder freight, Class 8; 2-6-0 2-cylmder freight, Class 4 (this engine is being designed and has yet to he built); 2-6-0 2-cylinder freight; Class 2; 2-6-4 tank 2-cylinder mixed traffic, Class 4; 2-6-2 tank 2-cylinder mixed traffic, class 2; 0-6-0 tank 2- cylinder freight; Class 3; 0-6-0 tank 2-cylinder freight, Class 2 ;and 0-6-0 Diesel shunting locomotive.
It will be moticed that the 0-6-0 tender locomotive, for many decades the ubiquitous maid-of-all-work, is at long last doomed so far as the L.M.S. is concerned.
Two of these standard engines, viz. the Class 2 tender and the 2-6-2 tank locomotive, are new designs referred to on other pages and—apart from their technical features—are of added interest in that. it has not been the practice of British Railways to design and build new types for secondary services; previously the practice has been to employ either old engines or alternatively new ones built to an old design. The new L.M.S. locomotives, however, although of small size and light weight, incorporate every modern development which has been found successful on main line types. It is dearly desirable that secondary service locomotives, equally with main line ones, should be capable of the highest attainable mileage per annum and between repairs, that they should be quickly and easily serviced at sheds, and that they should be economical to run. Since their prospective life may be over 30 years they should also be capable of good acceleration and relatively high maximum speed so as to be able to meet. any future speeding up in branch line services. These requirements cannot be fulfilled by locomotives built to designs of 20 or more years ago and a. further factor influencing the L.M.S. was. the fact that a considerable number of Class 2 engines of old design would have fallen due for scrapping in the years 1939 to 1945 had the war not rendered their retention necessary. They are now gradually being withdrawn as their condition warrants and their places taken by the new locomotives.

Their Majesties' Tour South Africa. 15.
The Royal train to be hauled by Beyer-Garratt locomotives over the Rhodesian Railways.

L.M.S. 15
Mr. C.E. Collins appointed Assistant Works Superintendent C.M.E's Department, Earlstown . Mr. G.E. Wilson succeeds the late Mr. W. Darcy at the Scientific Research Department, Crewe.
New locomotives in service were:- 2-6-4 Tank Class ·4P (built at Derby): Nos. 2259 to 2264; 2-6-2 Tank Class 2P (new design, built at Crewe): Nos. 1200 to 1209; 4-6-0 Class 5 Mixed Traffic (built at Horwich): Nos. 4988 to 4991; 2-6-0 Freight Tender Class 2F (new design. built at Crewe): Nos. 6400 to 6409.
The following engines have been withdrawn — 4-6-0 Class 4P: No. 14760 (Caledonian, former. Highand Railway "River" class. Class becomes extinct with withdrawal of No. 14760); 4-4-0 Class 2P: No. 14340 (Caledonian "Dunalastair" III class); 2-4-2 Class 2PT: Nos. 10722, 10825 (L. & Y.R.); 2-4-2 Class IPT: No. 6722 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-4-4 Class lPT: No. 1428 (Midland); 0-8-0 Class 6F: No. 12723 (L. & Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 3F: Nos. 3467 (Midland), 12394_ (L. & Y.R.), 17700, 17704 (Highland); 0-6-0 Class 2F: Nos. 3131, 3519, 36]6, 22916, 22930, 22943 (Midland); 0-R-4 Class 7FT: No. 7941 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-0 Class 1FT: Nos. 1700, 1850 (Midland).

G.W.R. 15
The last two timber viaducts on the G.W.R. system, Dare and Gamlyn, designed bv I.K. Brunel were being dismantled.

L.N.E.R. appointments. 15
Mr. G.C. Gold appointed Mechanical Engineer, Stratford, following the death of Mr. F.W. Carr, and Mr. G. Caster succeeded Mr. Gold at Gorton. Mr. F.H. Petty appointed Assistant Locomotive Running Superintendant, North Eastern Area.

New L.M.S. locomotives. 16-17. illustration, diagram. (side & front. elevationss.)
Ivatt Class 2 2-6-2T: No. 1200 illustrated

Steel plate wel;ded axlebox. 17

G.V.O. Bulkley. Some considerations regarding locos, for colonial railways. 20-3.
Bulkley had wide experience of African railways and was latterly managed the Nigerian transport system, having deen chief mechanical engineerb of the Nigerian Railways. Most of what follows are extracts from an arttice.
For the smaller railways, two classes should suffice. One, a development of the 4-8-0 tender engines which were served out to all colonial railways prior to 1920, and the other a 4-6-0 tank. The 4-8-0 tender engine under modernised, superheated design is capable of considerable development. Assuming an axleload of 13½ tons the starting tractive force would be 31,500 lb. and the adhesion factor 3.85. For 80 lb. track and an axleload of 17½ tons and 20in x 29in cylinders starting T.F. would then be 40,000 lb. and adhesion factor 3.95. (The axleloads assume close-sleepered track with double sleepering at joints). Such 4-8-0 engines, fitted with the largest boilers practicable, 10in and 12in piston valves with 6in travel and twin blast-pipes-should give a very good and economical account of themselves.
The larger colonial railways should be able to handle their traffic expeditiously and economically with not more than 3 locomotive classes. These would vary with the extent of the railway and the weight distribution of its track. Assuming 80 lb. rails from the seaport mergiog into 60 lb. at a point inland, the following are suggested:-
(i) A 4-8-4 + 4-8-4 Garratt ; cylinders 16in x 28in; for hauling seasonal heavy export traffic and shopped during the slack season.
(ii) A 4-6-2 + 2-6-4 Garratt; cylinders 14in x 28in; for through passenger train haulage and for freight haulage during the slack export season.
(iii) A 4-6-0 tender, or 4-6-4 tank; cy1inders 16in x 28in ; for passenger and freight hauls of lesser mileage.
With 220 lb. boiler pressure and 4ft 6in wheels standard for all three classes, the two cylinder sizes should suffice. Rodding and valve motions (6in valve tr:avel) might also be standardised for all three engines, the rather heavier than necessary roddjng for the smaller Garratt being carefully cross-balanced. Piston valves 8½in and 9½ in diameter respectively.
Corresponding starting T.F's at 85% BP would be (i) 49,684 lb.; (ii) 38,.008 lb.; and (iii) 24,822 lb.
In regard to No. (ii): 8-coupled should not be used unless 6-coupled has to be definitely discarded. The new Garratts on the Rhodesian Railway are 6-coupled and achieve a starting T.F. of 40,000 lb. with 4' 9" wheels,
The cylinder stroke-diameter ratio may seem large m the case of engine No. (ii), but a most successful class of twenty 6-coupled Garratt engmes has been working on the Nigerian Railway since 1936 having cylinders 12¾in x 26in, wheels 4ft 0in and boiler pressure 225 lb.; T.F. at 85% BP is 33,400 lb. at starting. These engines have to work over 45 lb., 60 lb. and 80 lb. track in through running. In the words of the war-time G.M. they have been "giving yeoman service.
It is of interest to note that Stephensou's Rocket had the same stroke-diameter ratio. It was felt that if George could use it successfully with the low pressures and saturated steam of those days; then with high pressure steam and superheat, combined with a high piston speed, it should give good results today—as it has done.
Looking back, it seems somewhat strange that past C.M.E's of colonial railways should have been so shy of cylinder stroke. The extra leverage afforded costs little in relation to its desirable effect at the drawbar, while the longer cylinder enables steam to be used more expansively. G.J. Churchward' s express engines on the Great Westerm Railway, having a 30in. stroke, still skim the rails and  Hawksworth has used the same stroke for his new 1000-class. In the U.S.A. a 32in stroke is common.
In regard to boilers: because the driver of an engine will be a black or brown-skinned mechanic there is no reason at all for boiler pressures on colonial railways to stand still at those of the gay nineties. It is suggested that 220 lb., superheated, is a suitable pressure to adopt.
Public money being expended on colonial railway equipment, there is, no doubt, a tendency to add proprietory fittings to new locomotives; but it is really important for these engines to be as simple as possible. Were this the general rule, works managers and store keepers at colonial railway workshops would sing a te deum. The following suggestions bear this important point in mind.
Boilers should always be the largest that the axleloading and structural gauge will allow and should have ample steam space under all conditions of gradient. Large diameter longitudinal water-tubes supporting the brick-arch sensibly improve ciroulation and are easily cleaned. It seems doubtful whether there is any solid advantage in the supenheater header type of multi-valve regulator over a simpler arrangement; e.g. that used on the G.W.R. where the boiler dome is omitted and a flat-seat regulator valve located in the smoke-box immediately above the superheater header.
Twin blast-pipes produce a drawbar advantage by preventing the cross-over of exhausts at mid-stroke with consequent back-pressure at the point of maximum turning effort. The elliptical chimney required with twin blast-pipes also allows the products of combustion to. be ejected at a lowered velocity and consequent further reduction of back pressure. (Tests have shown that twin chimneys offer no advantage over the one elliptical ane).
For reciprocating valve gear: either the Walschaerts or Baker external design are simple substantial mechanisms requiring a minimum of adjustment and maintenance. Freak valve gears should be avoided. Long valve travel is, all- important and can be readily afforded with the Walschaerts gear by utilising a link of sufficient length to give what is required without swing through an arc of more than 45°, and less if possible. A greater angle of swing is likely to produce abnormal slippage of the die; while excessive swing will tend to jam it at long cut-offs and buckle the radius rod. 7" travel is generally recognised as the limit with Walschaerts gear. The Baker gear allows of a longer travel than this.
To start a train at all crank angles, it has been found necessary to. have a cut-off as late as 88% and for valve lap plus lead to be not more than 19% of the valve travel. Port opening at 25% cut-off should be as nearly as passible 40% of pis tan area to allow a free steam flow. . The great importance of steam distribution warrants all valve gear designs to be laid off full-size in the drawing office far each 57deg; of crank angle; or an adjustable model made. Indicator cards taken at various cut-off positions of the reversing gear while piston valve engines are drifting without steam have shown that at the 45% cut-off position neither pressure nor vacuum is created and the effects of carbon deposit thereby minimised. It is suggested that engines should have a dearly marked cut-off indicator of generous size fixed on the back of the firebox in front of the driver; the 45% cut-off point being distinctly unarked in red, together with a large type instruction plate telling drivers to. put their gear into 45% when drifting without steam.
In the foregoing it will have been noticed that larger piston valves than are usual for the cylinder diameters are advocated for the engines suggested as suitable for colonial railways. The same generous diameters should be extended to. steam pipes and exhaust passages. The locomotives of colonial railways necessarily have small driving wheels and high piston speeds result. There seems little doubt but that, in the past, potential power has been locked up in the bailers which could not get into the cylinders. The wise dictum of the late Mr. Ivatt of the Great Northern Railway that cylinders must be kept full of steam is fundamental, and the in and out flows af steam can with advantage be carried through areas in excess of what appear to be sufficient.
Cylinder and steam chest lubrication fed via the steam pipe's should not anly be constant while engines are running both with steam and when drifting, but should also enable ail to be fed to. the valve and piston faces when engine has been standing and before it is moved. Mechanical lubrication, while positive, has the defect that the oil is not steam-atomised when the engine is drifting and is therefore likely to deposit oil in a burned corsdition ; also that it does not supply initial lubrication prior to starting.
A simple system of sight-feed lubrication fed by carrier steam into. each steampipe provides a steam-atomised spray under all engine conditions. By being automatically brought into operation from the movement of the regulator handle, a short space of "dead" movement from the closed position allows lubrication to. commence prior to. the regulator valve opening, thus provid- ing steam-atomised lubrication bath prior to starting and when engine is drifting withouj steam. A positive safeguard keeps the system in operation while drifting by the automatic action of a small cylinder whose piston is held in the open position by vacuum or compressed air from the ,brake system. This system of cylinder and steam-chest lubrication, while positive, has the advantage of requiring no. moving mechanism. Mast colonial railway trains stir up clouds of dust and grit during a part of the year. Axle- box and ham faces, and slide-rod knuckle pins often give C.M.E's a constant headache. By pegging and edge welding thin sheets of man- ganese steel to both horn and axle-box faces, continuous lubrication should become of secondary importance and no trouble experienced. Far side-rod knuckle pions, the double-cone type gives least trouble. It would be well were slide-bars protected by being as entirely enclosed as possible.
Tender and carrying wheels (loco and rolling stack) should be solid or have their spokes filled in with wood as open spokes seem to have a pumping effect an dust. Hot boxes are always an anxiety, especially when packing has to be done by Native staff. The Isothermos axlebox is a sure cure but expensive. It has seemed that far rolling stock it would be worth while to experiment with a double ring-oiled box. Roller bearings for locomotive bogie and carrying- wheels have long passed the experimental stage and can well become standard. They give no trouble and their use eliminates that amount of daily lubrication attention.
Locomotive front-end design calls for great initial care in design. Having ensured the greatest possible freedom to the ingress and egress of steam to and from the cylinders, the blast-pipe becomes the point af importance. The Kiescl star shaped blast-pipe tip might well be standardised as tests have shown that it exercises a sensiblv beneficial effect an cylinder back-pressure .ani[ draw-bar pull superior to. those from a circular orifice with Gaodfellaw tips.
The blast-pipe tip should be as far below the centre line of the boiler as practicable. From tip (diameter T for circular orifice) up to chimney choke diameter (D), the distance is given by  a formula [not rerproduced]
Finally; locomotive cabs and fittings should always be arranged bearing in mind conditions of tropical heat. Roof draught ventilation (with- out grit) and side openings with sun screening are important. 'Windows should have visors: also polarised glass is now available. Sight-feed lubricator blocks should not be placed right in front of the enginemen's faces when looking out ahead. The steam-fountain (or turret) should be placed on the top of the boiler outside the cab with the controls projecting into it. The steam reverse lever is best placed sufficiently high from floor level to be reached conveniently when standing or when seated on a raised seat with step
See also letters from K.N. Harris on page77.

Conversion from coal to oil burning. 23
Having referred in an editorial article to the principle of oil burning,. we now propose to deal with some of the practical considerations.
The Great Western Railway propose to alter 172 locomotives, comprised as follows; 63 2-8-0 class 28xx; 84 4-6-0 Hall class; 25 4-6-0 Castle class. These are in addition to the 44 engines (25 Castles, 1 Hall and 18 2-8-0 tender and tank) already converted under the 659乐彩's own scheme to which reference has already been made in The Locomotive -vide page 178, VOIl. LI. Fuel depots are to be installed at Old Oak Common, Reading, Didcot, Swindon, Bristol (Bath Road), Bristol (St. Philip's Marsh), Newton Abbott, Newport (Ebbw Junction), Cardiff, Landore, Gloucester Westbury, Banbury and Plymouth (Laira). These installations are in addition to those already existing at Llanelly and Severn Tunnel Junction. The work is being pressed forward as materials become available.
The L.M.S.R. intend converting 485 engines, those selected being: Class 5 4-6-0 mixed traffic .); class 4 0-6-0 16; class 7 0-8-0 175; class 7 2-8-0 11; class 8 2-8-0 245; 2-6-6-2 Garratt 33. The work is being carried out at Crewe, Derby and Horwich. The engines concerned will be eployed on heavy freight duties and fuelling facilities will be available at Ciricklewood, Willesden, Bletchley, Northampton, Nuneaton, Crewe (South), Shrewsbury, Bath, Wellingborough, Toton , Nottingham, Kirkby, Westhouses, Staveley, Hasland, Leeds, Norrnanton, Wakefield, Rose Grove, Mirfield, Farnley Junction, Newton Heath,. Aintree, Lostock Hall, Swansea and Carlisle (Kingmoor).
The L. N. E. R. programme covers 450 locomotives made up of Ministry of Supply and class O1.O2 and O4 2-8-0s; J39 0-6-0s; K3 2-6-0s and Q6 0-8-0s. The numbers of each type are still to be confirmed. Oil depots will be at Heaton, Newport, York, Carlisle, St. Margaret's, Temple Mills, Doncaster, March, Peterborough, Hornsey, Annesley, Colwick, Woodford and at each main Works.
The Southern scheme provides for the alteration of 110 engines consisting of 20 West Country class; 16 N15 and H15 classes; 34 N and U classes; 10 D15 and 30 L11 and T9 classes. The work of  conversion will be carried out at Eastleigh and Ashford. Oil storage facilities are to be provided at Eastleigh, Exeter and Portsmouth.
The London Passenger Transport Board has decided to convert Neasden ,generating station to oil firing and has commenced the work involved. Neasden has 6 pulverised fuel boilers, the first of which was due for conversion to oil burning before the end of 1946. The remaining five will follow and will be completed in not less than 18 months. It is estimated that when all these boilers are converted they will consume some 45,000 tons. of oil a year. When the scheme is complete oil will be delivered from Purfleet in trains of twenty 10 ton tanks and each train load will be transferred, in approximately 8 hours, into two 1,600 ton storage tanks when full these will contain 4-5 weeks' supply.
The Ministry of Supplv is providing all the necessary equipment for the conversion of locomotives and has placed an order with The North British Locomotive Co. Ltd., for 1,192 sets of equipment including firepans, brickwork, fire-doors, manifolds, steam and oil piping, valves, etc. In addition 715 oil tanks complete with heaters have been ordered from that 659乐彩, others will be supplied by Dockyards and Royal Ordnance Factories.
The President of the L.M.S.R. has recently stated that the cost of converting the 485 engines to be altered by his 659乐彩 will be in the region of £900,000.
The burning of oil in this country is not a new departure, as our readers will be well aware, in fact much pioneering was done here by Holden on the Great Eastern Railway. Later others tried oil but rather bv way of a temporary expedient. The Great Western were first in the field in this new conversion scheme and they have rendered invaluable assistance by their conventional enterprise—to which tribute has been paid by the Minister of Fuel amongst others, Through the kindness of that 659乐彩, in a forthcoming issue we will describe and illustrate the apparatus used.

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 24-5.
(Continued from Page 184, Vol. LII).
McIntosh added further engines of this class to the stock up until 1897, the greater number being for passenger workings and fitted goods. There were five engines 'Of the class built in 1896 which did not however correspond in all respects to the standard passenger en.gine. In these engines the boiler was unaltered but condensing apparatus was fitted for the working of traffic through the Low Level lines of the Glasgow Central Railway which were located mainly in tunnels below the streets of Glasgow. These engines had heavier framing and were at one period noticeable from the fact that their safety valves were slightly nearer to the dome than with the other engines. Pumps driven from the eccentric pulley were first tried but were soon abandoned in favour of the boiler feed pump driven by steam. The exhaust steam was diverted through the piping placed on each side of the boiler barrel by a "T" valve attached to the blast orifice. The piping on reaching the cab front sheet was dropped at an angle of about 45 degrees below the engine footrplate and there joined a short horizontal pipe connecting the engine outlet to the tender pipes. The rpirpe rose from the front of the tender at an angle of about 45 degrees and followed the line of the tank top to the back of the coal space where it was carried down to the bottom of the water tank for discharge amongst the tank water and to he condensed by the water although this did not always happen particularly when the tank water was getting warmed up by the latent heat from earlier condensing attempts. These five engines were heavier than any of the others and the weight 'in road order was 42 tons 4 cwt. The condensing apparatus was generally out of use from about 1906 but some drivers persevered with it for some time afterwards whilst others had abandoned all attempts at the impossibility of condensing prior to 1906. The men on the run between Maryhill and Rutherglen had the hardest joib for their entire trip was spent in the tunnels except for a short spell at either end, whereas those on the Airdrie and Balloch runs had an orpportumty to get their feed water cooled at either end of the run and long enough before reaching a tunnel to get the best results from the apparatus, The copper pipes disappeared from the engines between 1922 and 1924.
The class is too large for the individual dates of rebuilding to be gone into in detail and at present new and reconditioned boilers are still being fitted so that the information would be out of date at the time of going to print. In general the class was rebuilt with boilers similar to the Lambie pattern up to 1916 (ca). About 1906 McIntosh tried out on one or two of the engines a lock-up tyrpe of safety valve, but this does not aprpear to have lasted on the engines for long.
With the coming of Pickersgill in 1914 to the position of Locomotive Superintendent the clack boxes were removed from the boiler barrel and the injector placed on the hack plate of the boiler. In 1923 a further alteration to the appearance o[ the boiler was the use of Pop safety valves which type of boiler remained standard for the class in L.M.S. ownership excepting that the Midland type of flooding injector (with internal delivery) was used in most renewals in place of the C. R. tyrpe from 1926. The abandonment of the older policy of keeping the same boiler cm the engine made some very interesting alterations appear in course. No. 17408 went to Inverness for an overhaul in 1929 and whilst there was given a Drummond boiler with the safety valves on the dome. When the engine returned 659乐彩 it was painted the standard black with the addition of red lining out of the boiler bands and the tender panel. The crews kept the engines so well polished that they wore the lining oft eventually. Other old Drummond boilers appeared on goods engines and these had Pop safety valves substituted for the old Ramsbottorn pattern.
For historical record mention should be made of two very uruque boilers which appeared in L.M.S. days. No. 17467 had in 1 !:J34 a boi.ler with Drummond injectors and "Pop" safety valves over the firebox. No. 17473 when running in 1937 had a new boiler with the flat topped dome on the boiler barrel and Rarnsbottom type safety valves which had been substituted for .. Pops" carried previously.
In the months of June amd July, 1894, there was severe unemployment amongst the Scottish miners owing to the scarcity of orders and this affected the Caledonian Railway considerably. Almost 160 engines were laid off on the Caledoniar (the N .B. had to layoff about 100) and in all probability this was the reason for the finishirug off of all further engines as passenger fitted and with theWestinghouse brake so that they could be used on any type of work as the necessity arose. From 1900 all the passenger engines of the 18 inch goods class were given larger slide valves and altered valve travel,
About the year 1890 the Great North of Scotland Railway was considering the use of a six-coupled goods engine for working on the Moray Firth Coast line and had on doan either one of two ·of the engines of this class. The engines ran a number of turns very successfully but it was decided that the line was most unsuitable for the use of a six-coupled engine in view of the great number of curves, some of which were very tight. Some forty years later the line along the Moray Firth with very little alteration was carrying the L.N.E. Rly. B12 class of 4-6-0. Duringt the World War of 1914-1918 the Caledonian Railway lent twenty-five engines of this class to the Government for use in. France. The engines left in 1917 at the time the Military Authorities found that the French lines were incapable of supplying their own requirements of locomotives and vehicles. The transfer of these engines was to be a stop gap until the makers in Britain could undertake the Military Authorities locomotive programme, the bulk of which was for the Great Central type 2-8-0 tender engine. The engines lent were:-

CR No. WD No. Left 1917 Returned 1919
259

259

Nov.

May

260

260

Nov.

June

294

294

Nov.

June

310

310

Oct.

July

315

315

Oct.

July

318

nk

Nov.

June

319

nk

Nov.

Oct.

323

nk

Nov.

?

335

335

Oct.

Aug.

337

337

Sept.

June

365

365

Nov.

Sept.

367

367

Oct.

June

374

nk

Oct.

Aug.

403

403

Nov.

June

517

nk

Sept.

Oct.

548

548

Nov.

July

549

549

Nov.

July

553

553

?

?

558

558

?

Aug.

680

5680

Sept.

Sept.

682

5682

Nov.

July

703

5703

?

?

705

5705

Nov.

Aug.

707

5707

?

?

708

5708

Nov.

?



nk= Not known, probably same as C.R. Co.
When these engines were returned to the Caledonian Railway they were put on to the duplicate list with their former numbers increased by 1000. (To be continued).

R. Opie. Locomotive power, performance an rating. 26-9. 3 tables

Issue Number 655 (15 March)

G.W.R. 2,500 h.p. gas turbine-electric locomotive. 31.
Being designed and constructed by Brown, Boveri & Co., Ltd., of Baden, Switzerland, for the GWR. A similar but somewhat smaller capacity locomotive, built by the same firm about five years ago for the Swiss Federal Railway, was described in The Locomotive, 52, page 26. This technical achievement aroused considerable interest around the world, as it was the first time this new form of engine was adopted for traction work. The locomotive is carried on two six-wheel bogies, the outer axles of each bogie being driven by series type D.C. motors completely suspended to reduce the unsprumg weight to a bare minimum. Compared with a highly efficient express steam locomotive, such as those being used on the Great Western line,. the fuel consumption of the gas turbine-electric locomotive will be less than half for equal work done.

G.W.R.. 31.
Following new engines put into service: 4-6-0 No. 1020 County of Monmouth; No. 1021 County of Montgomery; No. 1022 County of Northampton; 0-6-0 No. 3209; and 0-6-0T Nos. 9652 to 9661.
Engines recently withdrawn: 0-6-0 No. 2362; 0-6-0T Nos. 1722, 1761, 1794, 1763, 1866, 1882 (Neath and Brecon); 4-4-0 No. 3553 Pershore Plum.

L.N.E.R. Appointments. 31.
Mr. T. Matthewson-Dick Technical Assistant to the Locomotive Running Superintendent, North Eastern Area, has been appointed District Locomotive Superintendent, York, Mr. J. J. Finlayson, Assistant Works Manager, Cowlairs, has been appointed Locomotive Works Manager, Gorton, in succession to Mr. G. Caster; Mr. R.L. Vereker, Locomotive Shed Master at Mexborough, had been appointed District Locomotive Superintendent, Ardsley.

British Railways, Facts and Figures. 31.
Issued by the Main Line Railways and London Transport contains interesting facts about the Railways and the Board, their equipment, traffic and special features.

Conversion of "Patriot" 5X class, L.M.S.R. 32. illus.
States that conversion of 18 authorised in first instance.

Jet propelled locomotives. 32
The adage that there is nothing new under the sun is largely applicable to locomotives; the germ of many a modern trend is to be found in early patent specifications—at the moment two are of particular interest in the light of recent announcements.
In 1868 J. Robertson took out a patent (No. 3416) for a locomotive "to be propelled by the reaction of jets or currents of steam, air and furnace gases." Apparently the locomotive was in its turn expected to propel the train otherwise the plight of the occupants of the first carriage would have been a dire one!
A much more practical proposition was D. Greig's idea,protected by patent No. 2791 of 1876. This was for a locomotive having the axles each driven by a three cylinder engine connected to cranks at 120°. The cylinders were what today would be termed nose-suspended and apparently the whole worked in an oil-bath as it was wholly enclosed.

New corridor composite carriages, L.M.S.R. 33.
60 ft long and 9 ft wide. Seating 18 first and 24 second class passengers with rubber sprung buffers and rubber pads between underframe and timber floor. Built at Wolverton Works.

Loco modernisatiion on the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 33-6. 2 illus., 3 diagrs.

Conversion from coal to oil burning. 36-8. 2 diagrs.
GWR modifications to tender and firebox as instigated by F.W. Hawksworth.

Obituary. 38
Henry Greenly.

Hickey, T.M. N.S. Wales express trains: "The Fish". 39-41. illus.

L.M.S. 41
Thirty-three standard 4-6-2 pxpress passenger locomotives were to be equipped with self-cleaning smokeboxes, hopper ashpans and rocking grates.
Three hundred and sixty-six express passenger locomotives, comprising the whole of Power Classes 7P, 6P and 5XP, were to be fitted with speed-indicators. New locomotives in service are: 2-6-4 Tank Class 4P (built at Derby): Nos. 2265, 2266 and 2267; 4-6-0 Class 5 Mixed Traffic (built at Horwich): Nos. 4992, 4993 and 4994; 2-6-0 Class 2F Freight (built at Crewe): Nos. 6410 and 6411.
The following engines had been withdrawn: 4-4-0 Class 3P: No. 25304 Greyhound (LNWR. Precursor class ) and No. 775 (Midland); 0-6-2 Class 2PT No. 6870 (LNWR.); 2-4-2 Class 2PT: Nos. 10669 and 10719 (L.Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 3F: No. 3794 (Midland), Nos. 12105, 12128, 12463, 12605 (L.Y.R.), Class 2F No. 3434 (Midland); 0-6-2 Class 2FT: Nos. 7722, 27555, 27558, 27666 (L.N.W.); 0-6-0 Class 1FT; No. 1884 (Midland) .
During 1946, 129 locomotives were constructed; 482 new passenger-carrying vehicles were also completed (15 of them by outside contractors)—an increase of 137 per cent. on the 1945 ontput.
5,753 new wagons were built in the shops including 572 all-steel 16-ton mineral wagons of a new design. A new plant for this tvpe of wagon was erected at Derby and  was now in full production.

Stewart, W.W. The Takapuna Steam Railway, Auckland, New Zealand. 42-3. 2 illus., map.
4ft 8½ inch gauge street tramway designed to connect with ferry from City of Auchland with a line from Bayswarer to Lake Takapuna. Line opened on 22 December 1910. Three tramway locomotives supplied by Kerr Stuart: WN 1096/1909; 1137/1909 and 1216/1911; these were numbered 1-3 and first-two named Waitemata and Bayswater, These were totally enclosed 2-4-2Ts. These were joined by a Baldwin 0-4-0ST WN 37168 of class 418 C96 and became No. 4. Two further Baldwin's were supplied in 1919: WN 52128 and 52205.

H. Hilton. White Horse of Kent.  44.
Reproduced in full below:
As this subject has aroused interest no excuse is necessary for again referring to it because the writer believes that the builders of this notable engine can now be determined. To avoid recapitulation reference should be made to " The Locomotive," Vol. 50, pp. 53 and 194.
Messrs. Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd., state that after the order for the 2nd White Horse of Kent "their records are silent and they are unable to confirm that this engine was constructed in the works of another builder."
After a careful scrutiny of Warren's "A Century of locomotive building," and Starbuck's 750 letters, it is possible to arrive at a reasonable conclusion from the following facts. The replace engine bore Robert Stephensori's plate No. 435 and it is not mentioned in any other builders' records.
Warren states on page 94, 13th October, 1841: " Cook writes to Edward Pease within the last 6 months' We have gradually discharged about 50 hands—the number of engines for which we now have orders being 38—but I may mention that we have up to this time' in the present year finished amd sent away 31 engines, and that ere its dose, we calculate upon the despatch of 6 or 7 more.' "
These figures confirm the yearly output of the works to be 38 engines, or at the rate of 1 engine about every 9 days with a reduced staff.
On page 97: "11 th December, 1843, Cook writes to Edward Pease, 'although we are now unfortunately working short handed-yet I am pleased to say that in addition to 3 engines we have in hand for Yarmouth and 2 for the North Midland, we have a contract for 15 for the Marseilles Avignon line—which we have reason to expect will be increased to 20—but they do not come into operation just yet.' "
" 13th February,. 1844, Cook writes to Joseph Pease, ' I am happy to say we are becoming more actively employed and since the 1st January we have orders for 5 engines (1 for the Croydon & Dover, 2 for Holland and 2 for Silesia) and shall immediately have an order for 6 more for the Yarmouth & Norwich' " afterwards increased to 10 but not required to be delivered until June the following year).
The output at the beginning of 1844 being at the rate of 1 engine every 9 days the number of engines on order at 14th March when the 2nd W.H. of K. was ordered would be 26, less the 9 which had been delivered since Cook wrote on 11 th December, a total of 17 engines including the replace engine or roughly 22 weeks' work.
The replace engine left the works early in the followmg September or 25 weeks after the order, a date which agrees with the output.
From these statements there appears to be no reason to suggest this engine or any other should have been sub-let to contractors during the relevant period, March to August, 1844.
Now comes the most amazing statement of Warren. On page 373 when describing the Gauge Experiments he writes: "The champions of the broad gauge appreciating the unsuitability of the long boilered engme for higher speeds at which they were aiming', made full use of such arguments as they could obtain from the bad behaviour of a particular engine, the White Horse of Kent, which had single driving wheels and outside cylinders, and although not built by Robert Stephenson ,& Co., was one of their long-boiler designs, being one of many engines of this type built by other makers to their drawings."
So after 79 years the engine as it were is disinherited, treated as the had boy of a large and successful family without justification.
The late Mr. Dendy Marshall informed the writer that the late Mr. Ahrons  [The British Steam Railway Locomotive 1825-1925 page 55] was mistaken in attributing the building of the engine to Nasmyth & Co., and that when he and the late Mr. A. C. W. Lowe were compiling the "History of the S.R. Locomotives" [Dendy Marshall's History of the Southern Railway] in they were unable to decide who built the engine.
Unfortunately they did not have access to the Starbuck letters [KPJ nor do we??]

Presentation to L.M.S. loco. No. 5739 "Ulster". 44-5. illus.
Plaques presented by the Ulster Branch of the Overseas League unveiled at Euston on 31 January 1947 by Lady Brook, wife of Sir Basil Brook, Prime Minister of Northern Ireland in the presence of Sir William Wood, President of the LMS and several directors: Sir Robert Burrows, Chairman, and Lord Aldenham, Evans Bevan, Francis M, Glyn, Sir Murray Stephen and Lord Woolton, Directors...

Penychain Holiday Camp. 45.
LMS improvements included lengthening the crossing-loops at Dinas Junction, Brynkir and Llangybi to enable ten-coach trains to be worked between Caernarvon and Afon Wen. The GWR doubled the section between Afon Wen and Penychain (renamed for Pwllheli Holiday Camp.

Personal. 45.
Edgar Alcock's 70th birthday: brief biography which ipso facto gives his birth date; also much information about state of Hunslet Engine Co.

Locomotives for mines: 100 b.h.p. flameproof diesel design for main haulageways. 45-6. illus.
Hunslet Engine Co. with six coupled wheels and Gardner 6LW engine and four-speed gearbox.

Reviews.  46.
The Eastern Union Railway. H.F. Hilton. LNER.
In our July issue we noted the centenary of this railway and we now have the full story published by the L.N.E.R., the fifth of a uniform series commemorating centenaries of sections of the system. The illustrations are excellent and no better choice than Mr. Hilton could have been made for the author. Mr. Hilton is an acknowledged authority on the old G.E.R., having been at one time District Locomotive Superintendent at Cambridge, at Stratford, and Assistant to the Superintendent of Operation, and when he retired Assistant to the Running Superintendent, L.N.E.R.
On the Footplate A.J. Creswell. Quadrant Publications
Popular description of engines and engine working: Recent locomotives and points of design are considered and a chapter is contributed by Dr. W.A. Tuplin on the subject of future development.
The World's Smallest Public Railway. O.J. Morris. Ian Allan Ltd.
This is an altogether admirable publication. It is well illustrated and written in a most entertaining manner. Much information is given upon matters with which patrons of the line will not generally be familiar, e.g., the proposed extension to Sandling.

Ruston and Hornsby Ltd., of Lincoln. 46
Publication 8826 dealing with the 165 DS. oil-engined shunting locomotive. This latest member of the well-known range of Ruston locomotives is fitted with a 150/165 B.H.P. 6-cylinder four-stroke engine .

Correspondence. 46
Condensing locomotives. Kenneth W. Wightman
One of the Reichsbahn series 52 2-10-0 condensing locomotives, mentioned by correspondent R.N.V.R. on page 29 of the February issue, is at work on the SNCF in France. This type is class 150-Y on the SNCF, and there were 41 in service, and the one condensing engine had been used on coal traffic between Lens and Paris. The remaining 40 were non-condensing engines. There were also 29 2-10-0s in service on the SNCF of Reichsbahn series 50 (the type from which series 52 were developed and these were class 150-Z. Reichsbahn 3-cylinder series 44, which was commenced in 1937, has been adopted as a standard type by the SNCF, and the class intended to increase by new construction to a total of 218. These were SNCF class 150-X. As far as writer knew the one condensing 2-10-0 was experimental, and it had not intended to extend this equipment to other engines of German design.
Caledonian engines. E. C. Poultney.
Requested McEwan to amplify his remarks regarding the cylinder design adopted by Drummond for the six coupled goods engines illustrated. So far as I am informed, Drummond being a faithful disciple of Stroudley, generally, if not always, used a cylinder design with two separate sets of steam and exhaust ports, one set above the other. The exhaust port of the upper set connected directly with. the passage way immediately below the blast pipe, but the exhaust from the lower exhaust port was carried round the cylinder barrel and over the top, as, due to this port arrangement, it was the only possible means of making connection with the exhaust passage at the base of the blast pipe. I should very much doubt if this design was used in order to provide a steam jacket, as I cannot imagine Stroudley or anyone else would think of jacketing a cylinder with exhaust steam with the idea of suppressing condensation. I think the idea behind this arrangement was to provide increased steam chest volume when the valves are between the cylinders which in itself is, of course, an excellent idea. Drummond used this type of cylinder on the London and South Western, as a reference to a drawing of one of his four cylinder engines, published in "Engineering," November 10th, 1905, will show, while a reference to Developments in Locomotive Practice, C.J.B. Cooke, 1902, page 51, illustrates Drummond's cylinders as applied to an ordinary engine with a pair of inside cylinders. Lambie, who followed Drummond at St. Rollox, also used cylinders of this kind. There was a drawing of one of these engines in The Engineer in 1895.

L.M.S. motor ship Princess Victoria. 46.
New vessel of 2,300 tons with accommodation for 1,500 passengers and about 40 motor cars. She was launched at Dumbarton on 27 August 1946, and, with a service speed of 19 knots, was replacement of former Princess Victoria, completed only a few months before WW2, but sunk on war service in 1940.

Issue Number 656 (15 April 1947)

The national coal situation and the railways. 47-8.
A substantial proportion of the national coal consumption is used by the railways and the bulk of this quantity is required by steam locomotives. The total coal burnt by engines in Great Britain each year therefore constitutes a considerable tonnage and any economies effected. must rea:ct to a corresponding extent on the national position; the exploration of every possible avenue  is urgently necessary in consequence and is now in hand. Considered broadly, there are two approaches: the reduction of mileage run, which is a traffic problem, and the reduction of consumption per mile which is the responsibility of the motive power department. As regards the first much has already been done by the cancella, tion of slack penod and luxury passenger trains and of certain general traffic freight trains; during the actual crisis marshalling yards were by-passed in some cases by coal trains. These were emergency measures and their extended application, already announced, must be governed by prior investigation, involving careful analysis of the utilisation and working of the services, in order that public inconvenience may be minimised and detrimental effects on efficient working avoided. It is conceivable that benefits may ultimately fructify; it may be found possible, for instance, to make certain yards redundant or convert them as a matter of long term policy to hump yards, thereby reducing the locomotive power necessary to work them. In any country where hauls are short, shunting mileage inevitably comprises a large proportion of the total, and anything which can be done to reduce its extent or, alternatively, to enable it to be performed more economically, is therefore to be encouraged. In general many schemes at present pigeonholed on account of labour and material shortages will now have to be re-examined from a new angle of national necessity rather than of railway economics, and given revised priorities.
Any approach to the problem from the locomotive aspect is at once faced with disabilities which influence unfavourably the coal consumption per mile. These are the dirt now included with the coal supplies, which is of course a source of complaint for every consumer, industrial or domestic, the effects of deferred maintenance, and the lowering of normal standards of workmanship by the dilution of labour. The effects of these factors are both direct and psychological; as regards the latter the fashionable malaise known as frustration is apparent.
Emergency action, then, may well take the form of encouragement of the engine crews and maintenance staff to effect economies by their individual efforts towards increased efficiency and by more effective co-operation with one another. Trite as this may appear, it is supported by the inertia and lack of pride in work which, unfortunately, are all too generally evident. Where dnvers are concerned, they must be instructed to use the most economical position of regulator and lever to time their trains, to ensure that the supply of lubricant is both constant and adequate, particularly to valves and cylinders, and supervise the work of their firemen with emphasis on the prevention of fuel wastage. No, two drivers work an engine in an identical manner; therefore should a driver have a strange firemao; he should advise him in advance of his intended actions on the road. Again, as an aftermath of the war, there are now many firemen of limited experience; drivers must treat them sympathetically and, remembering their own early difficulties, help them with instruction and demonstration. Courses in the theory and practice of firing would no doubt benefit employees and companies alike. Meticulous attention by drivers to the reporting of engine defects is also essential, with particular reference to those which tend to increase coal consumption. Examples are smokeboxes drawing air valves off beat, valve, piston, gland and othe; blows, safety valves blowing off light, and unsatisfactory oondition of brick arches, dampers and deflector plates. It is important that vague reports, such as "engine not steaming" and " blow at front end," be avoided ; they are of no assistance to the maintenance staff and at the same time reflect adversely on the craftmanship of the engineman.
The instructions to firemen should include such items as the avoidance of heap firing and other practices causmg poor combustion: and the control of injectors and fire, with accompanying adjustment of dampers and firehole door openings m such a manner that blowing off is avoided. For the same reason premature building up of the fIre pnor to the commencement of a trip must. be avoided and, similarly, the fire must be allowed to diminish towards the end of a trip. Care must be exercised when cleaning fires that live fire is not thrown out. Again, tenders must always be carefully, trimmed, the coal already on the tender bemg worked forward before replenishing in order to avoid accumulations of stale and abraded fuel· overloa,ding,. so easy at mechanical coaling plants: must be avoided, not only because spillage leads to waste of fuel, but also because fallmg coal constitutes a potential danger to staff working at rail level.
It is a good plan to encourage all enginemen to set themselves the initial savings target of a shovelful of coal per mile, at the same time emphasising that this by no means represents the ultimate practicable economy objective. The contribution of shed staff to the campaign is chiefly by the exercise of care and thorough- ness in boiler washing, tube sweeping and fire-dropping, together with the avoidance of premature lighting up and the extravagant use of coal for this purpose. Workshops staff can most effectively assist by giving prompt attention to all reported engine defects and by the exhibition of good workmanship in their rectification and in the course of periodical examinations and other engine maintenance work. Further economies may be effected by care in the uses of all electric current (the individually driven machine tool has a distinct potential advantage here), of hydraulic power and of ornpressed air. In the two latter cases the prompt reporting of, and attention to, all leakages are important.
The foregoing outlines, but not exhaustively, the details of the preliminary steps in a coal economy campaign. The next phase is to analyse the existing engine workings with the object of obtaining more efficient use of power. More intensive utilisation of the individual engine, by reducing terminal standing times, by "double shifting" and other means, usually leads to a reduction in its consumption of fuel per mile. Finally, consideration maybe given to improvements in design, and those which involve only limited alterations may certainly be regarded as short term policy. For instance, a small percentage coal saving may be effected at low cost by fitting top feed and, in some cases, similar results may be anticipated from minor alterations to valve events and gears or to the proportions of smokebox draught apparatus. Mention has already been made of the relative extent of shunting mileage in this country. It may be well to decide the extent to which the cut-off in full gear may be restricted on shunting engines without appreciable effect on the speed of shunting movement, by blanking off quadrant end slots or the insertion of distance pieces at the ends of reversing screws. Again, superheating may be justifiable in the present exceptional circumstances, although the economies would be far less than on main line engines. Here the cost of installation could be minimised by adopting a moderate degree superheater in conjunction with, for instance, balanced slide valves of phosphor bronze, the new tubeplates and fireboxes being of steel. It may also be beneficial to consider the similar fitting of superheaters to other classes of small tank and tender engines. Additional, but indirect, savings also occur by the reduction in the consumption of pumped water supplies, and the necessity for investigating these and other rnod incations is governed not only by the requirements of the immediate situation, but also by the time which must elapse before these engines can be replaced with others of more modern design and the percentage of coal which can be saved an their consumption in the interim period, which is conceivably of some length. There are two other matters which, although they bear directly on the question, cannot be conveniently considered here; the implications are too extensive. The first of these is the conversion of engines from coal to liquid fuel burning; it is of course determined economically by current relative costs of the two fuels and also in this country by the desirability or otherwise of relying on imported fuel. Secondly, there is the substitution of electric, diesel or other power for steam traction. The subject offers almost unrationed food for thought and subsequent action.

Electric mine locomotive. 48.
General Electric 659乐彩 for Weirton Coal Comapny's Isabella Mine in Pennsylvania.

Coal weighing tenders L.M.S. Railway. 49-50. illus., diagr.
Two tenders introduced under H.G. Ivatt with weighing apparatus supplied by the Transport & Generaal Engineering Co. of Leeds.

Stead, Arthur L. French locomotive plans. 50-2. 2 illus.

Articulated locomotives: Bosnia-Herzegovina Railway. 53-4. illus., 2 diagrs.
0-4-0+0-4-0T with drive off dummy crank axles. Design was probably that of Helmholz as locomotive was constructed by Krauss at the Linz Woeks in Austria.

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 55-7.
In 1903 No. 6199 was fitted with a "class 721" (Dunalastair I) boiler and tried out on various duties, mainly tackling heavier trains than the ordinary engine of the class. The engine broke three frames in the trial period which terminated in December, 1906, and then reverted to its old style.
All of the passenger engines have since L.M.S. days been fitted with the vacuum brake for train working. Also steam heating fittings have been added from time to time. Of the steam brake engines several from 1934 onwards have been supplied with Gresham and Craven vacuum ejectors and piping on the left hand side completely separate from the engine's steam brake on the right hand side and acting on the train only. During the 1939-1945 war a further alteration has been made, the vacuum and steam are now an the left hand side. The Midland Railway type of vacuum/steam apparatus is used with extension handle to enable the steam valve to be used alone without using the vacuum handle.
From about 1924 the earlier engines of the class were given an additional vertical handrail fitted to the cab entrance, bringing them into line with the Mclmtosh ones. The older arrangement was very awkward unless the tender footstep was used. Although the new boilers have a combined blower and sanding valve, in many cases the engine retains gravity sand and the steam sanding gear is blanked off. From 1935 onwards most engines which retained the gravity sanding were fitted with a steam sand washing apparatus fore and aft but the arrangement does not get used very often. Chimneys which have required replacement since 1943 have been done with "stovepipe" type of varying shapes.
Some odd interesting notes about the class are: No. 349 was the last engine to carry Drummond type boiler with the Ramsbottom safety valves on the dome. No. 307 (later 517) was the first engine to appear from St. Rollox with the L.M.S. colours and was No. 17245 (December, 1923). No. 682 was the first C.R. engine to be repainted L.M.S. which was done at Polmadie Depot. in October, 1923, L.M.S. No. 17271. The old painting had been continued in full glory for some time with the omission of the coat of arms, but by mid- summer 1923 there were certain little additional items missing. Lining was not appearing on the tenders of some of the goods engines, the "dot" between the " C " and the " R " was missing, and by the Autumn all further new painting had ceased. Only touching up being permitted. Under the L.M.S. from 1930 onwards boilers ceased to be mated to the same set of frames and began to get changed around. New boilers and cylinders were made and in some cases new frames were all put into the one engine. One effect of the boiler changing programme is to vary the pressure between 150 and 180 lb. sq. in. according to the state of the framing of the engine to which it is fitted.
In 1929, No. 744 (L.M.S. 17411) was fitted with the new pattern boiler which was the Lambie type boiler fitted with "Pop" safety valves and pressed to 180 psi and live steam injector of the M.R. type. Many others were fitted there-after, and this alteration gave the class a further lease of life. Although L.M.S. 17284 may have received this boiler type earlier, the performances put up by 17411 called attention to the scheme generally.
From modem standards as originally built they are small engines capable of hauling on an average "25/35 and a van," approximately equal to 400 tons, they are extremely useful in yards and where traffic is not dense and when necessary can haul passenger traffic or exchange easily with another engine of the class if not passenger fitted, for most sheds have some of each.
The class being a large one has been involved in many mishaps, No. 550 on 17th January, 1923, was suddenly switched into a loop at Pollokshaws South, and over-ran the buffer stops demolishing the signalbox of the offending signalman and finishing up in a smother of broken timber from the cabin down an embankment.
From the end of the 1914-1918 War the class began to appear on passenger runs of more consequence than the Coast route to Gourock and Wemyss Bay and Edinburgh to Glasgow stopping trains, Leith, Barnton, Perth-Forfar, and Alloa. The Oban line was the earliest to get a set working for the class on passenger work, followed by the Lanark turns, and to Muirkirk afterwards. This was the thin edge of the wedge and after the amalgamation the class was used for passenger traffic on many sections and particularly at the holiday periods when they did useful and fast working.
The high light was the Stirling to Oban excursions when two 18 in. engines loaded to 8 QF's and a Pullman worked through with complete whistle communication between the drivers to give synchronisation of cut-off and regulator. Less frequent workings were the Aberdeen-Stonehaven service with occasional piloting.
On one occasion two of the class coupled together reached a maximum speed of about 63 m.p.h. on a favourite stretoh of the line South of Girvan. The train was about 90 minutes late and the drivers were apparently making good use of all favourable gradients to reduce the lateness which they did succeed in doing to the extent of nine minutes between Girvan and Challoch Junction. This record will show the versatility of the class. It has frequently been said that the class was heavy on coal but against this has to be set their work output and pro rata their coal bill was not excessive. So far two only of the class have been withdrawn and the others are to be found on all Scottish sections of the L.M.S. Those used on the former Glasgow and South Western section are mainly steam braked and are used for mineral and shunting work.
The class was turned out as follows: Nos. 294 to 308, Neilson and Co., 1883 (WN 3043 to 3057) renumbered in 1918 excepting No. 294 done on return from War Service in 1919, to 1294, 262 to 264, 539, 259, 260, 335, 337, 365, 367, 374, 403, 517, 548. In 1923 were allocated L.M.S. Nos. 17249, 17232 to 17234, 17246, 17230, 17231, 17235, 17236, 17241 to 17245 and 17247. Nos. 349 to 352. St. Rollox Works, 1883 L.M.S. Nos. 17237 to 17240. Nos. 353 and 354. St. Rollox Works, 1884, L.M.S. Nos. 17250 and 17251. Nos. 517 to 526, and 680 to 689. Neilson and Co., 1884 (WN 3252 to 3271). Nos. 517, 680 and 682 renumbered 1517, 1680 and 1682 on return from War Service in 19119. L. M. S. Nos. 17269,17252 to 17260, 17270, 17261,17271, 17262 to 17268. os. 690 to 695. St. Rollox Works, 1885 05. 691 to 695 were renumbered in 1887 to os. 361 to 365 respectively. In 1919 on return from War Service 365 was renumbered 1365. These six engines became L.M.S. Nos. 17276, 17272 to 17275 and 17294 respectively. Nos. 309 to 320. St. Rollox Works, 1886. All these engines were renumbered. In 1918 No. 309 was altered to No. 549, 311 to 553, 312 to 558, 313 to 680, 314 to 682, 316 to 703, 317 to 705, 320 to 707, all of whioh renumberings took the place of engines lent to the Government. In 1919 on return from War Service the others were renumbered No. 310 to 1310, 315 to 1315, 318 to 1318, 319 to 1319. The L.M.S. numbers allotted in first C.R. numbering rotation were: 17248, 17290, 17283 to 17286, 17291, 17287, 17288, 17292, 17293, and 17289.
Nos. 355 to 360 built 1886, and 366 to 371 built 1887. St. Rollox Works. (L.M.S. regard Nos. 359 and 360 as built 1887 as they were finished and charged to that year although an 1886 order by the C.R. and finished in January, 1887, which was the end of the C.R. financial year). L.M.S. numbers respectively were 17277 to 17282, and 17304, 17312, 17305 to 17308. C.R. No. 367 was on War Service and on return in 1919 was renumbered 1367.
Nos. 321, 322 and 339 to 348. St. Rollox Works, 1887. In 1895 No. 339 was renumbered 323, and in 1918 Nos. 321 and 322 were renumbered 708 and 380. The original No. 339, later altered 323 was renumbered in 1919 on return from War Service, to 1323. The L.M.S. numbers of these engines were: C.R. Nos. 340 to 348 L.M.S. Nos. 17295 to 17303,380 (ex 322) 17309, 708 (ex 321) 17310, and 1323 (ex 323 and 339) 17311.
Nos. 403, 404, 406 to 409. St. Rollox Works, 1889. No. 1403 allotted to No. 403 on return from War Service in 1919. L.M.S. numbers were in original numbering rotation 17313 to 17318. Nos. 410 to 415. St. Rollox Works, 1890. These were the balance of the engines ordered along with the Nos. 403 series. These engines were fitted with the Westing house brake and pump for working fitted and passenger trains. The L.M.S. numbers were 17319 to 17324. Nos. 372 to 379. St. Rollox .Works, 1891, and Nos. 540 to 543, 1892. No. 374 on r-eturn from \Var Service in 1919 was renumbered 1374. The L.M.S. numbers given to the series were (omitting No. 1374 which was given Nos. 17348), 17325 to 17335.
Nos. 691 to 696. St. Rollox Works, 1892. These engines were also fitted for passenger train, etc., working. Their L.M.S. numbers were 17342 to 17347. For a short period about 1917 No. 695 was on loan to the Highland Railway when that line was short of engine power. Nos. 544 to 553. St. Rollox Works, 1892. Nos. 548, 549 and 553 were on War Service and on return in 1919 were renumbered 1548, 1549 and 1553. In original numerical rotation their respective L.M.S. Nos. were: 17336 to 17339, 17349, 17350, 17357, 17340, 17341 and 17351. Nos. 554 to 563. St. Rollox Works. Nos. 554 to 558 built 1892, 03. 559 to 563 built in 1893. No. 558 on return from War Service in 1919 was given No. 1558 and the number allotted by the L.M.S. was 17352. The other engines in rotation omitting No. 558 became 17358 to 17366. All the engines mentioned up to now, when dealing with the class had the standard Drummond boiler and tender.
Nos. 697 to 702. St. Rollox Works, 1893. According to official records these engines were htted with Larnbie type boilers, but on the other hand four of them are definitely known to have carried Drummond type boilers and probably all six did, No. 701 carrying its boiler until 1922 at 1east. These six engines were passenger fitted and worked from Polmadie and Dawsholm sheds. As already mentioned, No. 699 got a Dunalastair I class boiler fitted in 1903. The L. M. S. Nos. were 17367 to 17372.
Nos. 199 to 202. St. Rollox Works, February, 1894. Passenger fitted. This was one of the smallest orders placed at the works fer a standard type of engine and appears to have been made to bring the last series up to a total of ten engines. Although all were made at the same time there were marked running peculiarities amongst them, No. 199 was "a lame duck" and never seemed to be as good an engine as ithe others despite several examinations. No. 200 on the other hand was an extremely easy engine to work and could take a coach more than any of the others without appearing to show any retarding of its efforts. Nos. 201 and 202 were just ordinary in performance and did the work required of them. The L.M.S. numbers are 17373 to 17376.
Nos. 203, 204, 256 to 261, 334 and 335. St. Rollox Works, 1894. os. 203 and 204 in 1918 were renumbered 338 and 339, Nos. 259, 260 and 335 were renumbered in 1919 on return from War Service, 1259, 1260 and 1335. Their L.M.S. numbers in rotation of original numberings are, 17383, 17384, 17377 to 17379, 17389, 17390, 17380, 17381 and 17391. Nos. 336, 337, 703 to 708. St. Rollox Works, 1894. No. 337 renumbered 1337 in 1919 on return from War Service Nos. 703 and 705 renumbered 1703 and 1705 in 1919 on return from War Service. In 1920 owing to the numbers being carried by loaned Ministry of Munition engines these two engines were renumbered 1704 and 1706. Nos. 707 and 708 were renumbered 1707 and 1708 on their return from War Service. At the time of renumbering into L.M.S. stock this series were mixed up rather badly with other engines bearing near numbers. The L.M.S. numbers in original numbering rotation were 17382, 17392, 17353, 17385, 17354, 17386, 17355 and 17356.
The remainder of the engines of the class came from St. Rollox Works and were more regular in numbering and can be conveniently tabulated as follows:-

C.R. No. Date built L.M.S. Nos.
709 to 714 1895 17387, 17388, {a}
17393 to 17396 {a}
715 to 720 1896 17397 to 17402 {a}
736 to 749 1896 17403 to 17416 {b}
750 to 760 1897 * 17417 to 17427 {b}
564 to 575 1896 17433 to 17444
576 to 582 1896 17445 to 17451 {c}
583 to 587 1897 17469 to 17473 {c}
588 to 592 1897 17452 to 17456 {d}
761 to 765 1897 17464 to 17468 {d}
329 to 333 1897 17428 to 17432 {e}
593 to 599 1897 17457 to 17463 {e}

All these from 709 were Westinghouse fitted. Those dates shown bracketed indicate that the lot so grouped were part of the same general works order [the letters are solely to assist comprehension]. The lot marked with * were laid aside at the tme and later proceeded with, probably a system of earmarking money but not spending in the current year was used on this occasion. The tender design with the underhung springs was stopped about 1890, but records fail to disclose when and where the change took place. ( To be continued). Illustations: L.M.S. 17292 with Drummond Boiler and L.M.S. 17408 (rebuilt). See also page 96 letter from W.D. Wallace on loan of locomotives to Highland Railway.

L.M.S.R. 57
New locomotives in service: 2-6-0 Class 2F freight tender (built Crewe): Nos. 6412 to 6416; 2-6-4 Class 4P tank (built Derby): Nos. 2268 to 2271; 4-6-0 Class 5 mixed traffic tender (built Horwich): Nos. 4995, 4996.
The following engines withdrawn: 2-4-2 Class 2PT Nos. 10664, 10810 (L. & Y.R.); 0-8-0 Class 6F No. 12824 (L. & Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 3F Nos. 12090, 12241, 12263, 12562 (L.& Y.R.), Class 2F Nos. 3384, 22818 (Midland); 0-8-4 Class' 7FT No. 27943 (LNWR); 0-6-2 Class 2FT No. 7795 (LNWR).

Railway happenings in Ireland. 57.
Due to shortage of locomotive coal, all main line passenger train services on the CIE system were withdrawn on 20 February 1947, and some branch lines were closed completely. Goods train services were reduced to three days a week, and later, on 10 March, to two days a week only. Goods traffic was being conducted mainly by lorries, of which CIE were hiring some from private owners. Local passenger train services in the Dublin, Cork and Waterford areas were still being run at a reduced frequency. On the Dublin and Cork main line two passenger coaches were attached to the perishable goods and mail trains leaving Dublin at 07.15. and 19.45 and Cork at 21.30. There was also a daily perishable goods and mail train between Dublin and Athlone but passengers were not conveyed.
On the Great Northern Rly. (I) the reductions in service were not so drastic, and there were still three weekday trains in each direction between Dublin and Belfast, and reduced services on other lines. Goods trains were limited to two days a week, and traffic was confined to essential goods only. The Carrickmacross, Cootehill and Belturbet branches were closed to passenger traffic from 10 March.
The Belfast and County Down Rly. showed a serious state of. affairs; it seemed likely that the Bangor branch, the only portion which showed a profit on working, would be the only part in operation. No engines were scrapped during 1946 by CIE, the GNR or BCDR. Among those that went on the NCC were No. 50, the last remaining 4-4-0 with 7 ft. driving wheels, and Nos. 110 and 113, narrow gauge engines of the 2-4-4T and 4-4-2T types.


See also letter from R. Watson on page 95 concerning 0-6-0Ts Nos. 338 and 339. These were renumbered much earlier (from 203 and 204) than the 1918 stated herein as s at Kelvinbridge on Glasgow Undergroudn section in 1901 and in St. Rollox period between 1905 and 1910. .

Stewart, W.W. The Takapuna Steam Railway, Auckland, New Zealand. 58-60. 5 illus.

4-6-4 tank engines fot British Guiana. 60-1. illus.
Two locomotives supplied by Hunslet Engine Co. for standard gauge line with severe curvature and weight restrictions built to a design of 23 years earlier. 4ft diameter coupled wheels, 16 x 22in outside cylinders and 160 psi boiler pressure. Supplied to specification and inspection of the Crown Agents for British Colonies.

Central London tube extension. 61.
Progress on the Western extensipon fron North Acton to Greenford and Ruislip.

G.W.R. gas-turbine electric locomotive. 61-2.

Reviews. 62.

La Probleme de la Signalisation Ferroviaire et sa Solution Rationnelle. R. Tuot. Paris: Dunod, 1946. 126pp.
with preface by E. Bocquet, Ingenieur en chef honoraire a. la S.N.F.C.
A capital difficulty arising from the problem of securing complete safety in operating railway traffic lies in the necessity of providing such security under all conditions with the utmost flexibility of speed and the fullest utilisation of the track. In this work Dr. Tuot presents a novel solution by a judicious combination of the factors represented by speed, time, and distance. Thence he arrives at a conception which he terms "spacing according to speed" as a method of working satisfactory for every traffic requirement. The "tachymetric" solution offered depends fundamentally upon the fitting of the locomotive with an electrical speed indicator which can deliver current to controlling apparatus on other trains; and although his ideas may appear somewhat revolutionary, the author makes a most interesting contribution to the study of railway progress and opens the way for research into a way of operation which will appeal to railway men either on the technical or operative side. Space will hardly permit us to discuss this work in detail, but it should be said that Dr. Tuot deals with a difficult subject in an extremely able fashion; the mathematical treatment makes for the greatest clarity, and all diagrams, etc., are admirably executed. The final chapter is descriptive of the experimental apparatus installed by Messrs. Brown, Boveri and Co., in a special laboratory at Baden (Switzerland) for the better investigation of this new and original system of train control.

We have received from Beyer, Peacock and Co. Ltd., their new catalogue relating to ordinary type locomotives. This is the firm's first post-war catalogue and although times are difficult for the production of such matter the whole is admirably produced-the illustrations being especially good. Following Beyer Peacock's previous practice the text and particulars are given in English, French and Spanish, metric dimensions accompanying the two last-mentioned languages.

Obituary: W.J. Sedcole, chief engineer of the Pullman Car Co. since 1921. 62

Issue Number 657 (15 May 1947)

Base-Exchange Water Softeners. 63-4.
A.J.R. Walter read a paper to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers in London entitled "A Brief History af the. Application af Base Exchange Water Softeners to Railways." (Paper 463). The Author began by pointing out that water is probably the most impartant raw material used an a railway, bath in essentiality and quantity, and befare proceeding to the actual histary of base-exchange softeners gave a condensed description af other forms af treatment. Perhaps the earliest form of water treatment was the use af boiler compounds, which meant the treatment af feed water inside the boiler.

L.N.E.R. Locomotive Designs. 64-65. 2 diagrs. (s. els)
Precis of Bert Spencer's classic Paper No. 465 to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers in London. The diagrams were of the proposed 4-8-2 and 2-8-2T designs. The text mentions the proposed super A4 with boiler pressure raised to 275 psi and the six-cylinder D49 where difficulties in designing a bevel gear impeded progress.

Locomotive Power at Speed. 66-7.
At a meeting of the Institutian af Mechanical Engineers on 21 February 1947, E.L. Diamond, read a paper on the horsepower output af steam locomotives at high speeds. The rapid fall in the power developed with increasing speed, characteristic of locomotive performance, has during recent years been a matter that has received considerable attention, due to the desire an the part of designers to praduce more powerful engines to meet the demands arising for fast travel with heavier trains. Ultimately, the power that any engine can develop must depend on the steaming capacity of the boiler; nevertheless, given a steam supply at constant pressure the mean effective pressure in the cylinders at any cut off constantly diminishes as the speed increases. The problem confronting designers is, therefore, how to reduce this fall in the pressure exerted on the pistons and thus increase the cylinder power available through the higher ranges af speed. In his paper entitled The Development of Locomotive Power at Speed the Author divided his subject into two parts. The first section was devoted to a suggested method for computing mean effective pressures for different boiler pressures at various rates of cut off, taking also into consideration the effect of clearance volumes varying hom 5 to 15%, while at the same time the effect of compression at different cut offs was also taken into account.
Based on the construction of theoretical diagrams, graphs setting out the mean pressures to be expected were presented, constructed for a constant least back pressure and admission steam superheated and having a constant temperature of 600°F. These computations forrmed the basic data, not only for mean effective pressure, but also the determmation of specific steam consumption and cylinder efficiencies. The efficiency was calculated using a Rankin cycle assuming an adiabatic heat drop between a defined boiler pressure and the given constant exhaust pressure taken as 18psi absolute, divided by the heat available above the liquid temperature corresponding to the exhaust pressure. The second part of the paper presented plots showing the mean pressure actually indicated, based on a number of tests performed with different locomotives. Then, through the actual plotted points, the Author drew appropriate curves of mean pressure, obtained by a formula founded on the theoretical pressure obtained, as already mentioned, corrected by a factor characteristic of the particular engine and on the assumption that mean pressures would be proportional to the square root of the speed in revolutions per minute. The equation evolved is held to give the mean effective pressure "and hence the power at any speed of a particular out off." The Author goes on to say that the reason why other proposed formulae have been related to the boiler is to eliminate this condition (power for a given speed and cut off) and to give the maximum power for any locomotive as a whole for any given rate of evaporation. It is contended that this is fundamentally wrong in principle, it being pointed out that the first part of the paper showed how greatlv the economy of the engine is affected by the relationship between cut off and clearance, provided, of course, that the steam distribution is good. It will be apparent that the Author presented a most painstaking and excellent analysis of his subject. That this was appreciated was shown by the ensuing discussion, which, we may say at once, was not only of considerable interest, but reached a high standard.
In commenting on the paper, Mr. R.C. Bond in the course of his remarks touched upon the importance the Author had given to the effect of clearance and, in doing so, drew attentian to the relationship between clearance volume and the amount af compression. This is, we think, all important, especially from the point of view of power developed, for, if clearance space can be completely filled ar nearly so by the steam compressed, it will materially assist in keeping up the admission line of the indicator diagram. It is probable that modern long lap valve gears and improved steam port proportions have together augmented high speed performance by admitting more steam per stroke. There is, as a rule, little difficulty in exhausting the steam; the real trouble is to persuade it to enter the cylinders; further, cylinder back pressures are very largely governed — if not entire1y — by the size of the exhaust nozzle. Mr. Bond was also on good ground when he drew attention to the fact that the locomotive consisted essentially of three power-producing elements — the boiler, the engine and the link between the two, the smokebox, the chimney and the blast pipe. It is, in fact, the relationship bciween the action of these elemecr1ts that so largely determines what the locomotive as a whole can do, which, after all, is what we want to know. Locomotive power is a function of what Lawford H. Fry has so aptly termed the triplex relation between Coal Fired and Steam Produced, between Steam Exhausted and Air Supplied and between Air Supplied and Coal Consumed, consideration of which recalls the couplet:
"Upon the four elements I feed
Which life and power supply,
To run my race of boundless speed:
Take one away—I die."
Others taking part in this discussion, including Mr. E.S. Cox, stressed the desirability of taking the boiler into consideration when attempting to forecast locomotive performance. With this we fully agree, and feel that the Author would have been in a happier position had he been content only to estimate mean pressures for any known initial pressure rather than assert that his proposals were "a more accurate guide in estimating the power at speed of a projected design than either Cole's constants or the Kiesel formula, with its illogical basis in the boiler." There is a trite saying that "an engine is as good as its boiler." With this we fully agree. However good cylinder design may be and however perfect the valve gear, an adequate steam supply is the first essential. Under all conditians of working, the boiler has been, and will remain, the controlling factor in locomotive performance.

Brighton Works. 67.
In. June 1947 the thousandth locomotive to be built at. these works was completed: No. 2IC 164 of the West. Country class. It was exhibited alongside Stroudley Terrier No. 82 Boxhill, built in 1880 and repainted in the original colours.. The first engine constructed at Brighton was a single driver tank No. 14 completed in L852 soon after J.S. Craven joined the 659乐彩.

L.N.E.R. 67
The first Woodhead tunnel which accommodated a single line only, was started in 1838 and opened in 1845. The second tunnel was started in 1847 and completed in 1852. During WW2 these tunnels carried a tremendous volume of traffic, and the amount of maintenance work had to be reduced in order to avoid interruption to the trains. As soon as possible after the end of the war urgent repair work had to be undertaken, and various sections of the tunnels have been re-lined in recent months. This has necessitated the closing first of one tunnel and then of the other, all traffic being worked through the remaining tunnel, which has seriously reduced the carrying capacity of the line, and many trains have had to be diverted. Although these emergency measures will restore the tunnels to a satisfactory condition for the time being, the company has been advised that a great deal of work will have to be done to put the tunnels into perfect condition, and this will not only be very costly but will necessitate the complete closing of each tunnel in turn for long period, In the circumstances the Directors of the LNER have reached the conclusion that the only satisfactory course is to drive an entirely new double-line tunnel, parallel with the existing tunnels, and Parliamentary powers to enable this to be done are being sought in the 659乐彩's Bill this year.

Iraqi State Railways. 67.
An order has just been placed by the Iraqi State Railways with The English Electric 659乐彩 of Queens House, Kingsway, London, for nine two-coach Diesel-electric units. Three of these units are for the standard gauge lines from Baghdad to Mosul, and the remaining six, which are of metre gauge, will be employed augmenting the rail services out of Baghdad. Each two-coach unit will he fitted with an English Electric 275 h.p. diesel-electric power unit, and will be capable of running at speeds up to 50 m.p.h. Units can be joined together, if necessary, to form a train. The order placed by the Iraqi State Railways also includes one 350 h.p. diesel-electric shunting locomotive which will be capable of starting and hauling trailing loads up to 1,000 tons on standard gauge lines.

Henry Ford. 67.
Ford, whose death had been reported, had many interests apart from the giant industrial concern with which he will ever be associated. Among these interests locomotives ranked highly and at Dearborn he established a museum containing several old time engines. It will be recollected that he added to these a replica of The Rocket which he had constructed by Robert Stephenson and Co. Ltd, some fifteen years ago.

Baldwin Locomotive Works. 67.
4-8-4 oil gas turbine driven locomotive to be built for the Atcheson, Topeka and Santa Fe R.R. Designed to develop 3,000 h.p.

L.N.E.R. appointments. 67
J. Blair has been appointed Acting Mechanical Engineer, Scotland, in succession to J F. Harrison. R.S. Hart-Davies has been appointed Acting Mechanical Engineer (outdoor) vice Mr. Blair.

0-4-0 industrial loccmotive built Black Hawthorn of Gateshead preserved. 67
An early example of the 0-4-0 type industrial loccmotive built Black Hawthorn of Gateshead, being preserved by George Cohen, Sons and Co. Ltd. The engine was built in 1874. Black, Hawthorn succeeded J. Coulthard and Son, and built about 1,100 engines between 1864 and 1896. The business was sold to Chapman and Furneaux in 1896 who built about 70 engines before the partnership was dissolved in 1901.

Derens, L. The Dutch State Railways Co. 67-70. 5 diagrs., table
Concluded from Volume 52 page 193. Tramway locomotives used on The Hague to Scheveningen and Ede to Scheveningen (the former was electrified in 1924)

London Transport. 70.
To ensure detection on signalling track circuits a thin layer of stainless steel was welded onto top of rails in rarely used refuge sidings.

Loco modernisation on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 70-3. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.).
XP class of locomotives Nos. 3100 and 3101 constructed by Vulcan Foundry in 1937 incorporated experimental features: Mestre drawgear between engine and tender: this did not improve ride and was later replaced by a traditional drawbar. Steel fireboxes with Nicholson thermic syphons and ACFI feedwater heaters were fitted. The VM class of 2-6-4T consisting of five locomotives was supplied by Vulcan in 1940.

G.W.R. 73.
New County class into service: Nos. 1023 County of Oxford, 1024 County of Pembroke, 1025 County of Radnor and 1026 County of Salop.

Swiss Railways Centenary. 73.
Replica train built of Zurich-Baden Railway train.

R. Opie. Locomotive power, performance and rating. 73-7. 3 tables.
Continued from V. 52 p. 123-5.

Correspondence. 77

Locomotives for colonial railways. K N. Harris.
I found Mr. G. V. O. Bulkeleys article in your February, 1947, issue of the greatest interest and it seems to me that there are many points in it that designers of locomotives for any service might well study with advantage. There are one or two points upon which I should greatly appreciate further enlightment. In the course of the article it is stated that port opening should, at 25% cut- off, be as nearly as possible 40% of the piston area. The piston area of a 16in bore cylinder is 201in2. and for this size a 9½in diaeter piston valve is specified. The circumference of a valve chest liner of this bore is as near no matter 30in. 40% of 201in2. is, say, 80in2. and a port 30in long wonld have to be opened no less than 2.66in.
As the valve travel is given elsewhere at 6in there must be some discrepancy somewhere; it would appear to be in the figure of 40% of the piston area. It occurs to me that just possibly Mr. Bulkley may be referring to the area of the piston valve. If so, this would be 71in2 in. area and 40% of it 28.4in2, which would involve a port opening of just over 15/16in which still seems a large opening for 25% cut-off. Will the Author elucidate this point.
Further on he refers to the Kiesel star shaped blast- pipe tip: this is something quite new to me and I wonder if Mr. Bulkeley could give some further particulars of it, possibly with a sketch and dimensions.
I would in closing like to express my very great appreciation of one of the most interesting and informative articles which has recently appeared in your columns.

G.V.O. Bulkeley. 77-8
I am much obliged to Mr. K. N. Harris for pointing out the slip in my recent article. The figure given of 40% of the piston area for a port opening at 25% cut-off should have been 1/40th.
Taking the engine referred to: assuming a 16in diameter cylinder, a valve travel of 6in, lap 57/64in, lead ¼in, lineal port opening at 25% cut-off 9/32in and a 9½in piston valve, then piston area will be 201in2. and 1/ 40th of this is 5 sq. in. This will require a minimum port length (allow- ing for diagonal bridging) of 17.9in, which it would easily be; the circumference of a 9½in piston valve being 29.8in.
It is most interesting to hear that Mr. Harris has found my article of service. I hope that locomotive manufacturers also will find it useful. Colonial railway C.M.E's are handicapped by not having sufficient drawing office staff actually to design the engine which they specify. Much, therefore, is left to the manufacturer who secures the order. Conditions on railways in tropical dependencies are not those of railways in the 659乐彩 country and certain basal points need to be stressed and adhered to.
Kiesel Star Nozzle. (From The Steam Locomotive),
The engines should be built to operate as automatically as possible under varying conditions of speed and gradient. The boilers should be very rapid steam raisers, as native firemen are not always careful to maintain pressure ready to meet a sudden demand for steam. I have thought that a row of 5 or 6 2½in J water tubes along each side of a large firebox (similar in principle to those in Merryweather fire-engine boilers) would help. They could be readily cleaned and would avoid the central weld which the Pennsylvania Railroad's "circular water tubes"
An important point in respect of articulated engines for the tropics is that the steam pipe should not pass under the cab floor. The climate heat is bad enough on the footplate without having the soles of one's feet burned. I append a sketch of the Kiesel star nozzle as requested by Mr. Harris.

G.I.P. loco modernisation. N. Duncan. 78
It should be of interest to your readers to note that the G.I.P. 4-6-0 express engine 411 Hero illustrated in the March issue of is the Great Indian Peninsula Remembrance engine of WW1, having been named in memory of all those members of the G.IP. staff who laid down their lives in the war of 19I4-18. A. stray memory occurs to me in reading these articles While serving with the Forces as an Ordnance Clerk at Kirkee Arsenal, Poona, during the years 19I8 to 1920, an interesting daily contact was the G.LP. four-wheeled all steel 16 tons (436 maunds) box car which bore the " legend" on each side in letters of white "Treat this wagon well, keep it moving, it will help win the war."

Compounds. W.S. Upton..78
A great deal has been done in this country during the, last sixty years in the matter of designing and building Compound Locomotives; also much has been written on the subject (including some informative correspondence in "The Locomotive").
The result, as it stands now in 1947, must be a disappointment to those who believe in the compound system, but I think that I shall be absolved from any charge of "flogging a dead horse" when I suggest that the present rise in the price of coal, together with its shortage, and the deterioration of quality, renders advisable a reconsideration of the whole matter on the part of those concerned.
If the price of coal had risen forty or fifty years ago to anything approaching what it is now, we might be sure that compounds would have been built in really considerable numbers at various works, including quite possibly Doncaster and Swindon.
Everyone appreciates the advance in thermal efficiencies that has accrued from the general use of longer valve travels, higher pressures, and superheating; yes, but these improvements are all available to the designer of compounds, as well as simple engines.

Reviews. 78

The Royal Train, S.A.R., The Railway Gazette,
This is a reprint of an article which appeared in the Railway Gazette. In addition to a detailed description there are many illustrations including interior and exterior views, elevations of the King's coach, plans of seven other coaches and an outline plan showing the formation of what must surely rank as the finest train ever constructed.

Oxy-acetylene welding handbook, L. J. Tibbenham , M.LMech.E., Suffolk Iron Foundry (1920) Ltd.,
This is an excellent book giving a wealth of practical informa- tion on the oxy-acetylene welding of ferrous and non- ferrous materials including fusion and bronze welding. A previous edition of this book has appeared but that under review has been carefully revised in the light of modern practice and contains many new illustrations.

A.B.C. of L.M.S. locomotives, 1947: Ian Allan Ltd.
A new edition of this popular booklet revised to September, I946; it is well illustrated and, being printed on art paper, is an improvement on earlier editions.

Obituary.78
Death of L.C. Geach who, until his retirement in 1927, held the post of Superintendent of Motive Power at Derby. Geach joined the Midland Railway as draughtsman in 1896 and subsequently held positions at Bromsgrove, Bristol, Kentish Town and Canklow. He was aged 73.

Westinghouse Brake and Signal Co., Ltd. 78
Appointments: Major L.H. Peter, M.C., M.LE.E.Chief Development Engineer; L.E. Thompson, B.Sc., A.R.C.S.-Chief Electrical Engineer; K.H. Leech, B.sc.-Chief Design Engineer; N.G. Caman [Cadman]-Chief Brake Engineer.

Issue Number 658 (14 June 1947)

The 0-8-0T locomotive. 79.
Broad survey of mainly British designs but based partly on an export order for some for Africa supplied by Hunslet Engine Co.; also some Continental designs

Hunslet Engine Co. 79
Order from the Peruvian Corporation for a metre gauge 2-8-0 to operate on the Guaqui-La Paz Railway in Bolivia over gradients as steep as 1 in 14 located over 10,000 feet above sea level.

Railcars for Peru. 80-1. 2 illus.
D. Wickham of Ware railcars ordered by the Peruvian Corporation for service on the standard gauge Central Railway of Peru to operate up to 15,000 feet on 4½% gradients. Buchi turbo-charger. Drive through a Vulcan-Sinclair coupling to a Cotal epicyclic gearbox. Tested on LNER St Margarets to Buntingford branch line.

Baltimore and Ohio R.R. Class EM— articulated locomotive. 81-2. illus.
Thirty Baldwin 2-8-8-4 for operation in the Alleghany Mountains supplied in 1944-5 numbered 7600-7629. Four 24 x 32 in cylinders with 12 in piston valves. Grate area 117.6 ft2 and total heating surface 5298 ft2. Working pressure 235 psi.

Detecting leakage: vacuum brake. 82-3. illus.
Portable instrument developed by LMS Research Laboratories by J.O. Cowburn for which awarded Herbert Jackson Prize.

Cab signalling. 83.
See Locomotive, 1944, 50, 167 for full description of Westinghouse continuous cab signalling. Installation of system between Potters Bar and Greenwood.

Swiss locomotives for Holland. 83. illus.
Purchase by Netherlands Railways of 22 compound 4-6-0s from the Swiss Federal Railways: lcomotives manufactured by Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works of Winterthur between 1907 and 1915.

Swiss Railway Centenary. 84. illus.
Swiss Federal Railways:ordered a replica steam lcomotive from the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works of Winterthur incorporating some of the parts from the original parts from Speiser. The Limmat was No. 1 of the Nordbahn and built by Emil Kessler of Karlsruhe in 1847. The repica train consisted partly of original stock and replicas. The first train in Switzerland ran from Zurich to Baden on 9 August 1847.

GWR [Fishguard to Rosslare]. 84.
Tri-weekly service restored from May 1947.

LNER [appointment of G. Crabtree as District Superintendent, Edinburgh]. 84
In succession to G.M. Johnston who retired.

London Transport {Central Line]. 84.
Extension from Stratford to Leyton and Leytonstone. Tunnel section fitted with sound-reducing lining and 300 ft welded rails. LNER steam trains ran from Leytonstone to Loughton, Epping and Ongar. In the west the line extended to Greenford.

Proposed balanced four-cylinder locomotive. 85-7.
Krauss-Helmholz bogie fitted 2-6-2 with light frames and light, but powerful boiler.

L.M.S.R, 87.
New locomotives in service are: 4-6-0 Class 5 Mixed Traffic (built at Horwich): 4783, to 4788; (built at Crewe): 4768 to 4772.
The following engines have been withdrawn: 4-6-0 CIass 3P: 14690 Dalcross Castle (Highland); 4-4-0 Class 2P: (Caledonian-Dunalastair II); 14392 Loch Naver (Highland); 14412 Ben Avon (Highland); 4-4-0 Class 3P: 767 (Midland); 2-4-2 Class 3PT: 10910 (L. & Y.R.), 1P'T 6646, 6723, 6739 (LNWR); 0-6-2 Class 2PT: 6927 (LNWR); 0-4-2 Class 0PT: 15001 (Caledonian); 0-6-0 Class 2F: 3167, 3230, 3366, 3554, 3646 (Midland), 28139, 28261, 28278, 28535, 28614 (LNWR); 0-6-0 Class 3F: 1213°, 12617, 12324 (L &YR); .0-6-2 Class 2FT: 7772 (LNWR). With the withdrawal of locomotives Nos. 14690, 14337 and 15001 class or series becomes extinct.

Southern Railway. 87.
The first four 4-6-2 Battle of Britain class locomotives "will bear the names": Winston Churehill, Lord Dowding, Sir Keith Park and Lord Beaverbrook. "They will be followed by three others named" Fighter Pilot, Hurricane and Spitfire in honour of the men and their machines who took part in the battle over the very country through which many of these engines will run. Many of the Squadrons which engaged in the conflict will have an engine named afted them, while aerodromes such as Biggin Hill, Manston and Croydon will also be included."

The Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 87.
Hunslet building 11 straight diesel locomotives of 200 bhp for French purchasers, 10 of these to be shipped to Algeria. After 12 to 14 years of arduous service, two of the first three Hunslet diesel locomotives acquired by the LMSR in 1933-34 have been re-purchased by the builder for reconditioning. Both have Hunslet's gear transmission, and in each case this is in excellent condition.

Poultney, E.C. A new truck for freight cars: the Barber stabilised truck. 88-9. illustration, diagram
Standard Car Truck Co., Chicago

Aluminium  in rolling stock. 89.

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 90-2.  2 illustrations.
Drummond Class 66 4-4-0. Engines built in 1889 were first on Caledonian Railway to be made from ordinary mild steel. The exhaust ports were at the end of the cylinder faces and the slide valves were divided each with its own exhaust port. Drummond claimed to have reduced port clearance to a bare minimum with a reduction in back pressure. The blastpipe was Vortex type. Nos. 84 and 87 of 1889 and Nos. 83 and 88 to 90 of the 1891 lot were fitted with screw reversing gear. No. 124, the Edinburgh Exhibition locomotive (Dubs WN 2245/1886) was fitted with Bryce-Douglas valve gear which was designed for marine engines, but failed at the higher speeds demanded by locomotives. When the class was rebuilt with larger boilers, the LNWR passed them to work over their route to Manchester. The arrangement for mutual working lapsed in 1912 and did not resume until 1920. No, 79 was named Carbrook about 1895 after the estate of J.C. Bolten, a Board member. No. 124 was exhibited at the 1886 exhibition in the dark brown North British Railway livery. Also noted the livery displayed on this locomotive at the Glasgow International Exhibition opened by Edward, Prince of Wales, was adorned with Prince of Wales feather and Royal blue edging to splashers, cab, etc Continued page 144.

Diesel-electric locos., S.N.F.C. 92. illustration.
US Treasury supplied the Freanch State Railways with Baldwin-Westinghouse six-axle 660 hp diesel-electric locomotives under partial lease-lend terms.

Ahlberg, Nils. Swedish steam locomotives. 93-5. 2 illustrations, map.
The first sections of the main line Swedish Sate Railways were opened on 1 December 1856 and linked Gothenberg with Jonsereed on the line to Stockhom and from Malmö and Lund, also en route to Stockholm.

Correspondence. 95-6.
Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. R. Watson.
See page article on pp. 55-7 for page 57 concerning 0-6-0Ts Nos. 338 and 339. These were renumbered much earlier (from 203 and 204) than the 1918 stated herein as s at Kelvinbridge on Glasgow Undergroudn section in 1901 and in St. Rollox period between 1905 and 1910. See letter from F.F. McEwan p. 147..
Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. J.F. McEwan. 96.
Refered to Poultney's letter in March issue I think the best reply is to quote Mr. Drummond's words on the matter which will be found in the Proc. Inst. Civil Engrs, 1897, pages 219-220 Paper 2497). "The design of the cylinders is a departure from the normal arrangement with central valve face. The steam ports were moved to the cylinder ends, and the slide valve was divided, each having its own exhaust port. In this way the port clearance was reduced to a minimum. . . The exhaust passages were increased so that the belt from the lower and top valves extended along the whole length of the cylinder, thus forming an exhaust steam jacketted cylinder." This extract is taken from a paper on high pressure locomotives given before the Institute by Drummond. There is a further reference to the idea but I cannot lay my hands on the note, but think that it was in The Railway Engineer about 1884, where there is also a plate of the 0-6-0 type given.
Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. William D. Wallace.
In his very interesting instalment on the Drummond 0-6-0's of the Caledonian Railway I notice that Mr. McEwan omits to mention that two of the Class, Nos. 555 and 560, were on loan to the Highland Railway from 1915 to 1920, the former being employed in the Inverness area, and the latter working from Perth (H.R.) shed. See letter from J.F. McEwan p. 147..

Reviews.  96.
Transport Administration in Tropical Dependencies. George V.O. Bulkeley, with contributions from Ernest J. Smith, London, Railway Gazette.,
The wide scope of this book is best indicated by its chapter headings, which, in addition to an introductory section, cover the national aspect of transport, transport services wholly or partly rendered by the State, the functioning of a railway, port and marine functions, management and staff, Colonial railway finance and accounting, statistical control, road transport, inland waterways, air services, advisory boards, and planned Colonial transport, concluding with a suggested administrative system, and a number of useful appendices giving forms for suggested returns, bulletins. progress reports, vital statistics and other relevant documents. Although for many years to oome bulk transport will continue to go by rail, sea and waterways, and to a lesset degree by road, as the most economical means, there is no question that for certain purposes, air transport will play in future an increasingly important part in the communications system of many Colonies, especially in Africa.
The Calculation of Heat Loss from Steam Pipes, H. Buckley, Emmott and Co. Ltd..
Much potential energy is lost by inefficiently insulated pipes. This monograph, No. 33, is an attempt to combine essential theory with sound practice and should help in explaining the why and wherefore of applying lagging.
The Fordell Railway, J.C. Inglis and F. Inglis. Authors.
The Fordell Railway had much of interest in'itself and had added interest. albeit of a melancholy nature, in that its closing last August resulted in the disappearance of the last wagonway in Scotland. The Authors have obviously gone to much trouble to trace the history of the line and the book which they have produced is well written and illustrated and may be recommended to all interested in industrial railways and early wagonways.. .
My Best Railway Photographs, C.C. Herbert. Ian Allan Ltd.
This booklet dealing with the LNER is the fourth of a series and contains reproductions of some thirty photographs.
British Trains Album. Greenlake Publications Ltd.
This is the first in a projected series and deals with the LNER. It is intended to cover all groups, the LPTB and the Joint Railways and later to extend the series to pre-grouping companies. The photographs from which the 29 illustrations are reproduced are all by people well-known in this sphere and the reproduction has been well done on art paper. The page size is 8½ in. by 12 in.
Trains Illustrated, No. 5. Ian Allan Ltd.
Fifth of the series and contains articles on locomotive performance, notes on new locomotives, stock changes, etc.
Locomotives of the L.N.E.R., O.S. Nock. L.N.E.R.
This is a useful book and contains much valuable information. Particulars of policy, standardisation, classification and re-numbering and a list of named engines are given together with a series of diagrams (with leading dimensions, ratios, etc.) and illustrations of many types. All interested in the subject will be well advised to add this to their library.
Les Mysteres des Chemins de Fer, F. Rouge and Cie.
A number of authors, each specialists in their particular sphere, have contributed to this excellent book dealing with the technical and operational aspects of the railways of Switzerland. The 400 pages contain a wealth of interesting matter and the illustrations are–in company with the general production–of high quality.

Trade publications. 96.
Electric Traction Jubilee 1896-1946, J. H. Cansdale. The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd.
The Author, who 'has had many years' experience in the design and application of electric traction equipment and is already well known as a writer of technical papers and articles, has produced an excellent book covering the development of electric traction over the last fifty years. The British Thomson-Houston 659乐彩 are to be congratulated upon this publication which forms a most useful text-book and admirably outlines the tremendous progress made since the 659乐彩 first supplied totally-enclosed motors for the City & South London locomotives of half a century ago. It is unnecessary to remind readers of the considerable part played by BTH design and development both at 659乐彩网 and Overseas, but some measure of the popularity their equipment justly enjoys today may be gathered from the fact that of the 3,500 motor and trailer cars operated by London Transport no less than 3,000 are equipped with BTH controls. It is to be regretted that due to the edition being limited many who wonld like a copy may be disappointed but we understand that every effort will be made to supply those interested Overseas.
Robert Hudson Ltd., Leeds. 96.
General catalogue, describing this firm's well-known light railway material, together with their locomotive catalogue covering the Hudson-Hunslet range of diesel locomotives, These engines are available in 20, 25, 30 and 50 h.p. sizes. Both catalogues are well illustrated and produced and will be of considerable use to those engaged upon the selection of equipment for light railways.
Davey Paxman and Co. Ltd. 96.
Steps being taken to assist industry to surmount difficulties encountered in obtaining electric and mechanical power supplies. They are producing self-contained diesel generating sets from 56 k VA to 330 k VA capacity which are easily installed and occupy only a small space. By the adoption of these units it is clear that a useful part of the extremely serious deficiency between the supply and demand of electricity can be covered.

Issue Number 659 (15 July 1947)

International Congress. 97.
Editorial on International Railway Congress held at Lucerne in Switzerland from 27 to 28 June 1947. This approximately coincided with the centenary of railways in Switzerland. Swiss locomotives, whether steam, electric, or gas-turbine were noted for their excellence. The agenda was broken into five sections:
• way and works
• locomotives and rolling stock
• working (including electric traction and railcars)
• general (including housing for railway staff)
• light and colonial railways (including weight saving)

Southern Railway [closure of New Cross Gate engine shed]. 97.
New Cross Gate engine shed closed 14 June 1947 with locomotives allocated to Bricklayers Arms (mainly) and to Norwood. The shed was badly damaged during WW2. One shed dated back to 1844.

International Railway Congress: lightening railway passenger stock. 98-100.
Passenger Rolling Stock: Reports from M.M. Guignard, Swiss Federal Railways, E.A. Turbett, Assistant CME Southern Railway and W. Vrielynck, Belgian National (Vicinaux) Railway.
(1) There is a general tendency towards reducing the weight of all steel passenger stock without adversely affecting strength or comfort.
(2) Whatever the quality of the steel used it has been possihle to reduce, by a large proportion, the weight af passenger stock by careful design af all parts and by the use of sections made of thin sheets welded together. Usually the underframe-body structure is of the tubular girder type which has a high moment of inertia and the ends of which are specially braced and reinforced to resist shock.
Static and dynamic tests of the underframe-body structure are considered desimble. The use of strain gauges for such tests is most suitable.
(3) Ordinary carbon steel is still most generally used for building passenger stock. However, the use for that purpose of weldable low alloy steel with a high elastic limit, as well as the use af rustless steel, is becoming more common.
(4) Light alloys can be widely used for many detail sections and for interior fittings. They are also used in the building of structure assemblies on passenger stock of some light railways, but on main line railways their use far that purpose does not seem likely to be developed.
(5) The lightening of bogies can be obtained to some extent by using welded or rivetted thin plates for underframe construction and by replacing laminated springs by helical springs or the use of torsion bars controlled by shock absorbers.
It is also interesting to mention the combined use of rubber and steel for main suspensions and the use of robber suspended wheels. Designs at present in use allow for increase in comfort and it would be possible to further reduce the weight of the vehicle by replacing the heayy bogies in present day use.
(6) Lightweight rolling stock has been in service too short a time and in too small numbers to give any definite results as to its advantages both from the point af view of economy and savings. in wear on the permanent way but certain advantages do appear to be apparent.
Goods Wagons.
(1) Railway Companies are endeavouring to reduce the weight of their goods wagons as much as possihle.
(2) The lightening is achieved in general by the use of welded construction of the underframe members and bodies and also by the partial use of pressings which permits of reduction in thickness whilst maintaining sufficient rigidity.
(3) Ordinary steels are normally employed for goods wagons. Light alloys are sometimes used for certain details. Experiments are being carried out with light alloys for the principal framing.
(4) The possible saving in weight for gaods wagons is low in comparison with that for passenger stock. The reduction in weight should not be developed beyond a point where it is not a "commercial proposition".

Indian requirements. 100.
The Indian Standing Railway Finance Committee has approved a rolling stock programme for 1947-48 at an expenditure of Rs. 982 lakhs, which includes provision for 40 metre-gauge passenger locomotives to be built in India. Totals of 1,953 units of broad-gauge and metre-gauge coaching stock (in terms of four-wheelers) and 3,300 broad-gauge wagon units (in terms of four-wheelers) have been budgeted. The Committee also approved an order to purchase 100 broad-gauge express locomotives in the United Kingdom, and agreed to the Railway Board's proposal to restore capacity for a further 300 passenger locomotives for delivery by 1950.

Mozambique delivery. 100
Eight large 4-8-2 locomotives have been delivered from the U.S.A. to the Mozambique Railways, in Portuguese East Africa. They weigh 186 tons including tender, and are required to haul 2,000 ton trains over generally level routes. Maximum permissible speed' is 56 m:p.h.

American diesel locomotives. 100.
At the beginning of 1947 there were 4.579 diesel locomotive units in Class I railroads in the USA, and about 530 on the. Class II and III railroads and the switching and terminal railroads. Industrial works lines also had hundreds of diesel locomotives.

Polish electric stock. 100.
For the rehabilitation of the electrified lines round Warsaw, the Polish State Railwavs has ordered eight electric locomotives and 44 three-car electric trains from Sweden; delivery is to be spread over some years.

Locomotives for West Africa.  100.
The Loanda Railway, in the Portuguese colony of Angala. has budgeted the equivalent of £26,620 for the acquisition of steam locomotives during the current financial year.

Locomotives for Finland. 100.
The first of the 20 main line steam locomatives being built by Baldwin Locom.otive Works and the American Locomotive 659乐彩 far the Finnish State Railways was delivered earlv in the year. Anather 20 locomotives are being built by Fricks in Denmark.

2-8-2 Indian loaocomotives: "XD" Class. 101. illus., diagr. (s. el.).
North British Ltd. 5ft 6in gauge with two 22½ x 28 cylinders, 12 in piston valves, 5ft 1½ in coupled wheels, a total heating surface of 2685 ft2 and a greate area of 45 ft2. Built under supervision of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton.

0-6-0 tank heavy shunting engine, G.W.R. 102. illus.
No. 9409 illustrated: notes features standard with other classes, especially 8750 class and 2251 class (the No. 10 taper boiler with drum head smokebox)

Oil fired locomotives, Great Northern Railway (Ireland). 103-5. 2 illus., diagr.
During 1936 and 1937 the Great Narthern Railway af Ireland successfully experimented in the substitution af fuel oil for coal. The locomotive on which trials were performed was of the 4-4-0 two-cylinder type and in the converted state warked main line express trains between Dublin and Belfast. As at that time adequate supplies of coal were available and the cost af fuel oil was relatively high, the locomotive was subsequently re-converted to. coal burning. The recent serious situation of coal shortages made it imperative to. minimize coal cansumption and the 659乐彩 decided on a programme of conversion to. oil firing. Oil burning equipment has been fitted to. tank engines af the T2 class of which type there are 25. Tlhe first locamotive was converted in September af last year and up to March four of these were in service with further conversians in hand. With the exceptian of a decrease in the length af the brick arch and the covering of the base and about 15 in. af the firebax sides with firebrick, . the conversian was carried out withaut any structural alteratian to the boiler, firebox or smokebox. A vertical burner is used and the system adopted is that perfected by Messrs. Laidlaw, Drew and Co of Edinburgh, the objects of the layout are as fallows:
1 To. improve upon the coal and oil comparative ratios which have so far been obtained in locomotive oil firing. .
2 (a) To. eliminate local heating of firebax and tubeplate.
(b) To. reduce firebax brickwork to a minimum
(c) To. avoid deposit of unburnt oil in boiler tubes.
3 To. give controlled steam raising, so as to reduce boiler stresses, by slow heating and even flame distribution.
4 To obtain a slow enough rate of combustian (without smell) to enable steam pressure to be lost when standing and to enable the burner to accomplish this without use af blower and consequent loss of steam.
5 To give a range of flame control covering all normal train workings without having to vary atomising pressure.
6 To eliminate all damper or secondary air control by providing such a smokebox and combustion chamber base design that, covering the working range of the locomotive, any quantity of steam leaving the blast pipe is sufficient to. produce a draught which will induce a quantity of combustion air sufficient to make steam only slightly in excess of engine demand.
7 An arrangement which will provide far a rapid change to. solid fuel firing and vice. versa.
The system allows the firedoor to be opened when the flame is lit and the normal blower can be worked without extinguishing the flame. 1947 Laidlaw-Drew oil firing equipment was fitted to some T2 class locomotives..

Covered fish van, L.M.S.R. 105. illus.
Fifty six-wheel fish vans built at Wolverton Works and finished in LMS passenger train colour as designed for working on passenger trains. Shock absorbing buffers with rubber springs were fitted, and the auxiliary suspension also used rubber. It was noted that as "soon as conditions permit" two hundred ventilated fruit and vegetable vans would be produced for the Worcestershire fruit growing industry.

Railway power plant in Great Britain. 106-7.
A paper with the above title was read to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers during their Centenary celebrations by O.V.S. Bulleid,. M.I.M.E. (Past president), in the unavoidable absence of Sir Wm. Stanier, M.I.M.E. (Past President). The paper was divided into sections covering the four groups, the sections being contributed by O.V.S. Bulleid, F.W. Hawksworth, M.l.M.E. (Member of Council), H.G. Ivatt, M.I.M.E. and A.H. Peppercorn, O.B.E., M.I.M.E., the Chief Mechanical Engineers of the S.R., G.W.R., L.M.S., and L.N.E.R. respectively. These contributions are covered under the individual authors.

L.M.S.R. 107.
St. Pancras station is being closed either wholly or partially at weekends during reconstructian operations, involving one of the most complicated sections of line in the London area. Over 40 sets of points and 50 crossings are being replaced. Extensive signal modernisation and other improvements are also being carried out.

London Transport. 107
A new luxury fitted Underground car, in service between Aldgate and Rickmansworth, has three compartments. They are separated from each other by vestibules with partitions and sliding doors. The compartments are decorated with special ripple-finished plastic panels in a blue and Orange colour scheme. There are special bucket-type seats with recessed arm rests.

G.W.R. 107.
Two further 4-6-0 express engines, No. 1027 County of Stafford and No. 1028 County of Warwick, are in service. A propelling appliance resembling a small hand plough is being used experimentally by uhe GWR for shunting in small goods yards where difficulty may be experienced in providing locomotive power. It moves on a single wheel driven by a petrol-electric motor. The wheel is fitted with a rubber tyre with concave tread to enable it to run on a rail or the ground. The machine will propel up to 150 tons or approximately eight wagon loads. K.J. Cook, Loco Works Manager, Swindon, has been appointed assistant to the Chief Mechanical Engineer. H. Randle becomes Loco Works Manager. C.T. Roberts has been appointed Carriage and Wagon Works Manager, Swindon.

A general survey of the German locomotive industry during the war years, 1939-1945. 107.
Paper read before the Institution of Locomative Engineers on May 14, 1947. The Authars being Messrs. T. Greenwood, R. H. Felt, G. W. Hancock a.nd D. E, Gudgin: See Paper No. 467.

Industrial Design.  107.
A full report of the conference on Industrial Design held in connection with the recent "Britain Can Make It" exhibition in London is now available. The discussion stressed the importance of design rather from the appearance and selling point of view, which is not so important from the engineering aspect for, although it must be admitted that a neat and symmetrical machine is more likely to have pride taken in it and be kept clean by its operator, output will suffer if a streamlined exterior involves inaccessibility to the working parts.

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 107.
Members at London Headquarters, also at Birmingham, were entertained by an interesting account of wartime experiences in Germany given by D.S.. Barrie, M.B.E., an Officer in the Royal Engineers. The scale of destruction necessitating an enormous plan of rehabilitation and the diversified nature of the rolling stock employed were emphasised.

2-6-0 industrial tank locomotive. 108. illus.
Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns 2-6-0ST constructed for the Kailan Mining Administration in China乐彩网17500cn. 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge and had two cylinders of 17 ½ in. diameter by 24 in. stroke, controlled by Walschaerts gear. Coupled wheels 3 ft. 6 in. diameter.Boiler had a firebox of the Belpaire type, with a total heating surface of 986.86 ft2. Grate area 17.19 sq. ft2; working pressure 180 psi. 乐彩网17500cn included Westinghouse brake, turbo-generator for the headlamp and all usual fittings.

Eaton Hall light railway. 108.
Eaton Hall light railway, comprising engine, nine coaches and trucks, sleepers and rails, has been purchased by the Romney, Hythe & Dymchurch Railway. It was transported by the GWR and SR from Balderton to New Romney. The Eaton Hall railway and its rolling stock were described in. the Locomotive for March, 1942, 48.

South African orders. 108
South African Railways invited tenders for large numbers of steam locomotives and rolling stock. As many as 8,000 wagons and 150 locomotives in the 1947-48 programme, and 12,000 wagons and 150 locomotives in the 1948-49 programme.

Portuguese oil burners. 108.
One hundred steam locomotives converted from coal to oil burning are now in service on the Portuguese Railways, and another 80 were to be converted.

Poole, John. Locomotives of the Central Buenos Aires Railway. 108-10. 6 illus. (drawings: s. el.).
4 ft. 8½ in. gauge and 378 km in length, began as a horse worked tramway between Buenos Aires and Zarate. By 1914 it had extended another line 4 de Febrero, while the Zarate line had become part af the International route to, Paraguay by means of a connection to a train ferry Oowned by the Entre Rios Railway between Zarate and Ibicuy. Up to the formation af the Buenos Aires Transport Corporation in 1938, it formed part af the Lacroze property including an extensive surface electric tramway system in the city.

Locomotives for dock work. 111-113. illus.
Six 0-6-2T locomotives for Calcutta Port Trust supplied by Hunslet to specification of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton.

Railway models at Paddington. 113.
Working models of two famous engines were on view at Paddington Station. A personal gift from the maker, Mr. B.R. Hunt, of Johannesburg, to the Directors of the Great Western Railway, they are of a GWR. Cornish Riviera Express coach drawn by the 4-6-0 express engine King George V and George Stephenson's Locomotion No. I, together with the first closed carriage Experiment. In another case is a display of miniature engine tools.

Reviews.  113.
Locomotive Running Shed Practice: the maintenance . and servicing of locomotives, by Harry Webster, Oxford University Press.
Welcome乐彩网17500cn addition to the Oxford Series oi Technical Publications and is intended to give a general knowledge of shop and running shed processes as well as of locomotives and their ailments. The book is designed to represent practice throughout Britain with occasional reference to special equipments abroad. Boiler washing, breakdowns, coal storage and consumption, engine cleaning and engine repairs, working diagrams, shed layouts, shop equipments, turntables, water treatment, etc., are a few of the subjects dealt with. Illustrations are extremely good and numerous.
The development of road motors, 1898-1946, R.W. Kidner. Oakwood Press.
Part 2 of the Author's Short History of Mechanical Traction. Part 1, previously reviewed, took the story up to 1897: the present part covers the following period. The strides made during this era were, as is well known, very vast, and the book—which is illustrated by photographs and sketches in the Author's particular style—contains much of interest.
The development of the railway locomotive, 1880-1946, R.W. Kidner. Oakwood Press.
Fourth part of the Author's Short History of Mechanical Traction and Travel and is on similar lines to the parts previously reviewed in this column. Unfortunately it is not devoid of mistakes, as an example the 4-2-2 locomotives built for the G.N.R. (I) were not the first inside cylinder engines with this wheel arrangement; G.W.R. broad gauge singles were of this notation. The illustrations are not all beyond reproach, again to take an example the Jones Highland 4-6-0 is depicted as having louvres extending all round the chimney whereas they were only at the front. It is a pity that more care was not taken in the compilation of these booklets—the underlying idea of which is very good.
Also received
Titans of the Track, L.N.E.R. No.2, Illustrated. Ian Allan Ltd.
Locovariety, Illustrated. Ian Allan Ltd.
Trains Illustrated No.6. Ian Allan Ltd.
The Port of Goole: Gateway to the Continent, London: London Midland & Scottish Railway, Euston.
This was the last folder of a series of six, the others being announced on page 194 of Vol. LII.
London Transport Carried On: an account of London at War, I939-1945, by Charles Graves. London Passenger Transport Board,
The co-ordination of road, rail and air services, Hyderabad State, India.
Paper relating experiences in the. field of British Transport vehicles and control of State-owned services under one Administration, by E. W. Slaughter, C.B.S., M.I.Mech.E.,. M.Inst.T., General Manager Nizam's Railway Board 1931-41, Managing Director Nizam's Railway Board 1941-46. Read at the Institute of Transport in London on May 8, 1947.

L.N.E.R. Hull-Liverpool train passing through flood water at Rotherham Road, March, 1947. 114.
Photo: The Yorkshire Post

Locomotives for India. 114.
Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. delivering a batch of narrow-gauge 0-6-2T locomotives to India for mixed traffic service. These engines have 10½ in. by 16 in. cylinders and weigh about 24½tons in full working order.

Correspondence. 114.
Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. W. B. Thompson.
Referes back to ?: puzzled by statement that at the Edinburgh Exhibition in 1886 the Caledonian engine 124 was painted a North British brown. He visited the exhibition and saw engine there, and his recollection is that each of them was correctly painted to represent its own line. Caledonian blue was the most attractive colour that has ever been used for locomotives in any country, and he regretted that LMS company, in obsession for all things Midland, did not see fit to perpetuate it. He also saw the engine Carbrook at the Edinburgh Exhibition in 1890; both this engine and 124 carried names while on exhibition.
The 0-8-0T locomotive. J. Scott
See Editorial, in June issue: noting LNER, Q1 (rebuilds). In August, 1945, one of these locomotives was used for banking, complete with slip-coupling, on the Cowlairs Incline out of Queen Street Station, Glasgow. Caution seemed to be the keynote in the use of this locomotive on these duties, as it was particularly noticed that the driver did not open the regulator until the train engine had hauled the train (with the banking engine attached). for some fifty yards or so, whereas the regular 0-6-2Ts start up immediately, sometimes before the train enginemen had time to respond to the guard's "right away." About six weeks later he saw this Q1 tank hump shunting at Cadder Marshalling Yards.

Issue Number 660 (15 August 1947)

"Mechanicals" Centenary. 115
The Institution of Mechanical Engineers celebrated during June the centenary of its foundation, and to the large number of congratulations it has received we have much pleasure in adding our own. The founding af the Institution was one af the many great things with which George Stephenson was associated and railway and locomotive interests have through the intervening years played a g.reat part in the activities of what long since become one af the world's premier institutions. . Many leading locomotive engineers af the period contributed to its foundation and many have since added lustre to its activities; we cite Robert Stephenson, J.F. McConnell, Charles Beyer; Richard Peacock, John Ramsbottom and S.W. Johnson as earlier examples while coming ta the present century such names as Sir J.A.F. Aspinall, Sir Vincent Raven, Sir Henry Fowler, Lt.-Col. E. Kitson Clark, Sir Nigel Gresley, Sir W.A. Stanier and Mr. O.V.S. Bulleid are to be found in the list of illustrious Presidents. Throughout the century, locomotives have figured prominently in the many admirable papers read before the Institution and it is of interest to recall that as early as November, 1847, Charles Beyer presented one an the" Atlas" Luggage Locomotive Engine. Amongst the many locomotive engineers who have added papers to the proceedings may be mentioned J. Ramsbottom, A. Allen, D.K. Clark, F.W. Webb, W. Dean, D. Joy, W.F. Pettigrew, G.J. Churchward, H.A. Ivatt and G. Hughes. The contributions of other eminent and more recent locomotive men will be sufficiently fresh in our readers minds to render reference unnecessary. With such an important and distinguished locomotive background it was only natural that steam locomotion should. find a fitting place in the excellent arrangements mack to celebrate this occasion. An exhibition of Stephenson relics was held at Storey's Gate and the items gathered together from numerous sources were as interesting as they were comprehensive, in fact one could not help speculating as to whether such a display will ever again be gathered together in one place. A series of papers was given, to a gathering packed to capacity, an the present position of motive power and constituted a brilliant survey of British, Continental and American practice. This review dealt with the present situation af all forms. af railway locomotion and referred to their future prospects. All papers contained much valuable information, extracts from the British review appeared in our last issue and the Continental position is briefly referred to elsewhere in this number. The contribution on American practice, by P.W. Kiefer, chief engineer motive power and rolling stock, New York Central System, was admirably presented by R.C. Bond in the author's absence and contained much of interest, unfortunately — from our pomt of view — much of its information and value were derived from graphs and tabulated particulars which render it impossible to do the paper justice by quoting excerpts. We must content ourselves by saying that the author stressed the difference. between availability and utilisation, "availability" being defined as the percentage of total time a locomotive is available for service, whereas "utilisation" represents the percentage of tatal time it is actually in operation; it was shown that the steam locomotive compared unfavourably with other forms of motive power in this respect and indeed in almost all the respects which were tabulated. It seems to us, however, that the steam locomotive has certail} features which cannot be evaluated and amongst these we would place highly the ability to continue working when long overdue for shopping. Theoretically, we know, all equipment should be maintained in first-class conditoan and the point does not arise, but in practice it will occur as indeed it did during the last war and even, to a less extent, exists to-day. Had this country been equipped with other forms of motive power some units must have discontinued operation far want af maintenance. Our remarks, should not be interpreted as adverse criticism of a carefully considered survey of experience in America, which, is after all the only country where really extensive operating camparisons of steam,. diesel and electric locomotives are available.
A visit to the Southern Railway works at Brighton was included in the programme of celebration arrangements and was much enjoyed by those who participated. The celebrations were of. a far-reaching nature, beginning with a service in Westminster Abbey and concluding with a banquet at the Guildhall.

Brighton Works. 115
Thousandth locomotive built there: West Country Pacific No. 21C164 exhibited alongside Terrier Class No. 82 Boxhill in Stroudley yellow. First locomotive was Craven single driver tank engine No. 14

Pullman observation cars, S.R. 116. illustration
Devon Belle.

Motive power trends on European railways. 116-17
Page 117  missing from copy now owned

H.F. Hilton. The "Claud Hamilton". 117-19. 2 illustrations., diagram (side elevation)
Locomotive No. 8900 Claud Hamilton: a loocomotiv obituary. Pages missing from copy now owned (from Steam locomotive development)

Issue Number 661 (15 September 1947)

National Railway Museum. 133.
Plea by E.W. Swan for a National Railway Museum: Swan was Honorary Curator of the Municipal Industrial Museum in Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Experimental locomotive Norfolk & Western Railway. 133-4. 3 illustrations
1910 4-8-0 rebuilt with combustion chamber, fan in smokebox and automatic controls by R.G. Henly (Henley?)

Vernon L. Smith. The American logging locomotive. 135-7. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Claims to have started in 1864 with a 10 horse power portable boiler brought to Kittanning, then hauled to the logging site by horses and mounted onto a timber frame and using belt drive as a locomotive working on timber rails. Subsequently modified road loaomotives were used. The 4-4-0 type took over until Ephraim Shay designed the multi-cylinder geared locomotive built in 1880 by Carnes & Harper at their machine shop in Lima, Ohio. The first locomotive had a vertical boiler, but in 1883 a horizontal boiler version was marketed

Modern breakdown crane practice. 137-9. 3 illustrations
General article based on information from John Baker, Managing Director of Joseph Booth & Bros., Leeds

Eighr-coupled tank engines for West Africa. 140
Fifteen 0-8-0T locomotives delivered to the Nigerian Railways and to the Gold Coast Railways by the Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. form a good example of a heavy shunting and freight transfer engine for 3 ft. 6 in. gauge lines where axle loads were restricted. They have a tractive effort of 23,500 lb. at 75 per cent. of the boiler pressure and an adhesion factor of 4.6.
The locomotives have 3 ft. 6¾ in. wheels spread over a base of 13 ft. 3¾ in., but the total frame length is more than twice that distance, being 26 ft. 11¾ in. Over centre couplers nhe length is 30 ft. 8 in., the height is 12 ft. 4 in., and the width over footsteps 8 ft., but owing to the unusual shape of the loading gauge in West Africa, the cab can ibe swelled out to a maximum width of 9 ft. 3¾ in. A remarkably even distribution of' weight is obtained in the full working order condition the axle loads being, from the front, 12 tons  1½ cwt. plus 12 tons 1¾ cwt. plus 12 tons 2 cwt. plus 12 tons 2½ cwt.; total 48 tons 7¾ cwt. This is wlibh the fmll complements of 1,000 gal. of water and 2 tons of coal. With tanks and bunker empty the locomotive weight is 38 tans 8 cwt. A two-ringed boiler of 4 ft. 3 in. diameter is pitched 7 ft. 3 in. above rail level, and has a Belpaire firebox with an inner box of copper. The barrel contains 174 steel tubes 1¾ in. o.d. and 9 ft. 11¼ in. long. These give 791 ft2. of heating surface, and the firebox contributes a further 93 ft2. to the total of 884 ft2.t. The grate has an area of 13.3 ft2., and beneath it the ashpan dias a sliding bottom door for emptymg. Water conditions in Africa result in the practice of giving the inside of the boiler shell a coating of cement before the inner firebox and tubes are put in. Above the firebox are two 2½in. Ross pop safety valves set to blow off at 180 psi.
The two outside 18 in. by 23 in. cylinders drive the third pair of coupled wheels through connect- rods 8 ft. 7 in. long. Piston valves of 9 in. diameter are used, and are actuated by Walschaerts gear adjusted by lever reverse. All wheels are flanged, but the intermediate and driving pairs have thin flanges so that the locomotive can traverse easily 280-ft. curves without any gauge widening, and ,go over 1 in 6½ points and crossings.
Axleboxes are solid phosphor bronze with white-metal inserts,. and are lubricated from a Wakefield mechanical Iubricator. A renewable steel liner is fitted on one side of each hornblock, but there are no wedges. The boxes are supported by underhung laminated springs compensated in two groups. Other fittings include steam and hand brakes for the locomotive, vacuum equipment for the train brakes, Lambert wet sanding gear, a British Detroit sight-feed lubricator for the cylinders and steam chests, and a wire net spark arrester in the smokebox.

L.N.E.R. 140
The new train ferry, Suffolk Ferry, made her first trip from Harwich to Zeebrugge on 3 September taking a cargo of general merchandise and returning empty wagons. The other train ferry, Essex Ferry, sailed the following morning with a similar cargo together with L.N.E.R. mixed traffic electric locomotive No. 6000. This locomoti ve was built for the Manchester-Sheffield electrification scheme, upon which work has now bean resumed, and is being lent to the Netherlands Railways for extended trials.

Ahlberg, Nils. Swedish steam locomotives. 141-2. 5 illustrations
Continued from p. 132. Early Swedish-built locomotives. The first locomotive, to be used and also built in Sweden was Forstlingen (the Firstling) built by Munktel1s Mechanical Works, Eskilstuna, in 1847 for the Norberg Railway. The gauge was 3 Swedish feet. . It was never used in this condition, being unsatisfactory. The cylinders were placed between the two axles, tlhe piston-rod being lengthened in both directions, connecting-rods being provided to drive each pair of wheels. Later the Norberg Railway was altered to normal gauge. In 1853 Forstlingen was sold to the contractor of the Nora-Ervalla Railway and was transported to Munktells where it was rebuilt to normal gauge. The cylinders were moved backwards and the lengthened connecting-rods drove on to the leading wheels ; coupling rods were now fitted.
Forstlingen had 8¼in. by 15½ in. cylinders; coupled wheels, 2 ft. 1½. in. diameter; heating surface, 194 ft2; grate, 5 ft2and about 50 psi pressure. The weight in working order was 17 tons 8 cwt. The locomotive was used first for ballasting and later for ordinary traffic until 1856, when it was scrapped. Some parts of it are to .be found at the Railway Museum' m Stockholm. In the late 1890s the boiler was still used for heating purposes at the Mosebacke Show Theatre in Stockholm.
It is doubtful which was the second locomotive as no records of Munktells' early locomotives now exist, but it is supposed that it was the Fryckstad of the Fryksta Railway. This locomotive which was completed in 1855, was a six-coupled tank locomotive, the water tanks being situated between the outside sandwich frames. The inside link motion was of the Stephenson type. The gauge was 3 ft. 7.3 in. The lreading dimensions are listed as fractions not suited to html.
When the Fryksta Railway was replaced by a normal gauge branch line from the orth Western Main Line in 1872, the Fryckstad was transported to the naval base of Karlskrona where it was used for fortification works. About 1880 it was transferred to the fortress of Karlsborg for the same purpose but was never used. In 1906 it was presented to the Railway Museum at Stockholm, where it stands in the locomotive hall at Tomteboda.
In 1855 the locomotive Norberg was delivered by Munktells Mechanical Works to the Norberg Railway. It was of the 2-4-0 type with sharply inclined cylinders and seems to have been something like the Fryckstad. The gauge was 3 ft. 10¾ m. No other dimensions are known. It worked until the railway was converted to normal gauge, w:hen it was scrapped. The Amanningen by the same makers was delivered in 1858. No dimensions are available. It was sold to a tile works where it was used as a stationary engine until the end of the last century.
In 1857 Munktells delivered two locomotives to the. Atvidaberg Copper Work Railway one of which is Illustrated in the line drawing reproduced. Unfortunately no dimensions are known. Munktells, in 1857, delivered the Sjoandan to the Kristinehamn-Sjoandans Railway and the followmg year the Christinehamn. Again no dimensions are available.
In 1858 the first locomotive of the Wessman-Barkens Railway (later Smedjebackens Railway) went out from Munktells. It seems to have been identical with Amanningen. This No. 1 Wessman wl:s followed by a. sister engine No. 2 Barken in 1860. No dimensions are known. They, together with a third engme, were scrapped in 1903, when the Stockholm-Vasteras-Bergslagens Railway opened a standard gauge branch from the Engelsberg-Ludvika line. A fourth engine was rebuilt to normal gauge but did not survive long.
Munktells Mechanical Works never became great locomotive builders. The manufacture of locomotives ceased in the 1890s after about thirty had been constructed.
In 1861 the Motala Works, Motala, delivered its first locomotive Carlsund to the Vielle Montagne Zmc Ore 659乐彩, Ammeberg. This unusual locomotive was a six-coupled long-boiler side-tank engine with a mixture of o1d and modem features. The double plate inside frames were attached to the firebox and the draw-bar to a channel bracket riveted to the back of the casing. The stiffened footplate helped to strengthen the frame, especially in dealing with buffing forces; later secondary frames were applied around the firebox, The connecting rods from the horizontal outside cylinders drove onto the trailing pair of wheels and the middle pair was flangeless. The inside link motion was of the Gooch type, driving balanced slide-valves, The cylindrical portion of the boiler was comparatively large consisting of four telescopic nngs. The interior firebox was rectangular in horizontal section, but in longitudinal section it, resembled an old Bury box of the late 1830s. The boiler was domeless and the regulator was placed in the smokebox at the front end of the steam-collecting·pipe. The locomotive was provided with sledge brakes between the second and third pair of wheels, later altered to a brake with shoes working upwards. In the 1890s it was provided with the State Railways spark arres~er. The Carlsund had 15ft in. by 21~ In. cylmders; coupled wheels 3 ft. ft in.; heating surface 735 sq. ft.: grate 14 sq. ft., and steam pressure 90 lb. per sq. in. The weight in working order was 28 tons 10 cwt. The Carlsund did good work for sixty-eight years, and when withdrawn m 1929 was given to the Railway Museum.
Nydqvist & Holm, the greatest of the Swedish locomotive builders, were at first named Trollhattan Mechanical Works. This 659乐彩, known as Nohab, turned out their first locomotive in 1865. It was built for the Uddevalla -Wenersborg-Herrljunga Railway, was numbered 1 and carried the name Trollhattan, It was a 2-4-0 side tank locomotive with outside cylinders, inside steam chests and Stephenson link motion. (See page 119.)
It was a copy of a locomotive, delivered in 1863 from Slaughter, Gruning & Co., Bristol to the Boras-Herrljunga Railway of the same gauge. The Trollhattan had 11 in. by 16 in. cylinders; coupled wheels 3 ft. 3 in.; heating surface 398 ft2.; grate area 6 ft2:; boiler pressure 143 lb. psi.; weight in working order 15 tons 14 cwt. The Trollhattan was in continuous service till the railway was altered to normal gauge in 1899. It was then stated, that the tyres, eccentric straps, brake shoes and' piston rings had been changed, but that all other parts, even the tubes were the original—a tribute to the excellent workmanship and material put into the engine.
The foregoing may be considered the pioneer 'locomotives of Sweden. Their influence on the development of Swedish locomotives was of little or no importance, but as the earliest efforts they are of a special interest, and their makers are to be cornmended for their enterprise. Illustrations: Forstlingen; Fryckstad, Atvidaberg (diagram), Carlsund, Carlsund as rebuilt.

L.N.E.R.  142
Six third class sleeping cars of a new design are under construction. Each coach will contain sixteen berths-eight in single compartments and eight in double compartments, Full bedding and individual wash basins will be provided. Contracts had been placed with Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd. for the construction of 35 Class L1 2-6-4 tank engines and a like number of the same design with the North British Locomotive 659乐彩 Ltd. A contract had also been placed with the latter firm for the construction of 70 Class K1  2-6-0 locomotives.

G.W.R. passenger rolling stock. 143-4. 2 illustrations
Although Hawksworth is not mentioned this is Hawksworth stock: timber framed with 64 foot steel underframes and dome ends. The exterior of a third class corridor coach is shown: it had eight compartments, each 6 ft. 2 in. wide, providing seats for 64 passengers; and a lavatory iat each end. Four doors were fitted on both sides. Special attention was given to the lighting which was British Thornson-Houston 659乐彩's flourescent system.
The interior of a restaurant cars which had been refurnished and redecorated is also shown. Sleeping cars were also being completely modernised .

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 144-6. illustration
Continued from Page 92. The 4-4-0 engines when new were located between Glasgow (South Side)—which depot was shortly to become known as Polmadie when the new building was completed—Carlisle, Edinburgh, Perth and two engines at Aberdeen. No. 124 was first tried on the Carlisle turns from Glasgow but later was kept for the Edinburgh to Glasgow turns. After a lot of time had been spent in making new parts the engine was taken into St. Rollox Works and in December, 1887 came out with standard 18 in. by 26 in. cylinders and Stephenson link motion.
In 1888 when the through working between Carlisle and Perth was instituted it was found that to operate the full mumber of trains there were too few engines so a further six were laid down and another six added in 1891. After the whole series was in service os. 70, 71 and 90 were allocated to Perth. No. 72 went to Perth about 1891 and was the engine involved i:l1J the Greenloraning smash and rebuilt in consequence in 1903. Nos. 67 and 68 were sent to Stranraer for a few years not long after they came out and worked on the summer boat trains, but not the mail trains.
After 1895 the engines of the class were switched around a bit as each new development of the 4-4-0 type appeared on the line. Until 1'904 the class was used from Carlisle in the express link bu't in that year they ceased to be regarded as express engines at the Carlisle depot and some of them were sent to Dundee. No. 124 was sent to Polmadie for the opening of the Ardrossan line and the route to Arran. The "Caley" were set on lowering the "Souwest's" time for "all in" times, Glasgow to Brodick Pier, Arran. To create a good impression with the Eglington family the engine was named Eglinton and almost without exception it worked the boat train to Montgomerie Pier, Ardrossan, where the connecting steamer's crew was impatient to get away to Brodick. The engine worked back to Glasgow and took the afternoon train down and then returned in the evening with the connection from the afternoon sailing from Arran piers. As a matter of interest it may be noted that the ·rivalry between the two companies was obvious, the drivers of the connecting trains ran with all their best efforts, anything which would gain half a minute was attempted. The "Calev" men had to be ahead of their rivals on the adjoining line from Kilwinning if they were to. get in together to their respective stations, whistle cords were pulled until they nearly broke, firemen were still plying the shovel two miles from the terminus and finally with great skill the train was brought to a stop just at the buffers, generally without the use of sand, and the safety valves usually roaring. The connecting steamers repeated the performance and the rivalry was intense until the two competing lines came to an agreement. The passengers when they boarded the train knew what was in the wind, and betting on the "event" was not unknown. They often became engrossed in the merits of the " Caley " or the " Sou-west" line, and discussion waxed furious on the relative merits of a "Drummond " or a "Smellie."
All the engines of the class were rebuilt by MacIntosh. Eleven of the class were fitted with the Dunalastair I type of boiler, placed at 7 ft. 9in. centre line from rail level. The boiler had 265 tubes with a heating surface of 1,284.45 ft2. The firebox added a further 118.78 ft2., making a total of 1,403.23 ft2.. The grate area was 20.63 ft2. and working pressure 175 psi. The first engine to be treated was No. 71 which had the old combined sand box and splasher retained also the double footstep in line with the rear bogie wheel. No alteration was made 'to the Drummond cab, consequently the engine looked very similar to Dunalastair I Further rebuildings got Dunalastair In cabs with the curved cut out fitted and sand boxes placed beneath the running plate in front of the driving wheels and a single step was fitted in front of the sand boxes. Engines rebuilt with the larger boiler apart from No. 71 were vacuum fitted for working through L.N.W.Ry. stock which was not dual fitted. Nine of these engines had already been so treated in 1895 before rebuilding. No. 84 being the one additionally fitted.
As rebuilt the engine weighed 46 tons 11 cwt., the weight being made up as follows :-bogie 15 tons 13 cwt. 1 qr., driving axle 16 tons, rear coupled 14 tons 17 cwt. 3 qrs. During the First World War, Nos. 70, 73, 75,. 76, 89 and 91 were lent at varying periods to the Highland Ry. and worked between Perth and Blair Atholl and Inverness and Keith. One is said to have been shedded at Wick for a space. During their life-time various engines underwent transformations and some readers may recollect certain engines in their final stage and the following brief resume of the changes will aid the association of these changes.
No. 60 in 1917 was given new cylinders and frames and about 1919 received a 1905 made boiler. No. 61 was rebuilt by Lambie and later got the boiler from No. 14 (built 1894 by J. Lamoie ) in 1922 .. No. 62 got the old boiler from No. 87 in 1916. The boiler from No. 1064 went to' No. 1075 in 1921. The .boiler from No. 1065 went to No. 71, this ,large boiler was fitted between 1917 and 1921 but the date is uncertain. No. 72 was rebuilt twice, first time by Lambie with a standard boiler and the second time being after the Greenloaning smash. No. 68 got the boiler from No. 89 in 1922. No. 1074 got the boiler from No. 1081 in 1922. No. 79 as No. 107'9 was withdrawn/in July, 1922, but returned to traffic in December, 1922, with the boiler from No. 1077. No. 83 got a, large boiler fitted at an unknown date between 1920 and 1922 and it is probable that the boiler was that from No. 1087 which was withdrawn in 1922. No. 84 as No. 1084 appeared about 1924/5 with another small type Drummond boiler. No. 87 ram from 1915 to 1920 with a large (Dunalastair I) type boiler, which as already suggested may have passed to No. 1083 about 1922. No. 88 in 1922 got the boiler from Lambie's engine No. 15. No. 89's boiler was fitted to No. 1090 in 1921. No. 113 when withdrawn was fitted with a Drumrnond boiler and vacuum brake fittings. According to records the 1903 boiler was of the Lambie type. A spare boiler may have been used at one of the shoppings. Although there is no record of the engine being fitted with the vacuum brake, this may have been fitted at either Carlisle or Aberdeen where it was shedded at different dates.
Before dosing with the record of this class it will be recollected that No. 90 was one of the engines in the race to Aberdeen and its record will be referred to later when dealing with the Class 13, 4-4-0 of 1893. In 1928 the Oban 4-6-0 engine No. 14602 (forrnerlv C. Ry. No. 57) was withdrawn and the tender from it passed to 14302. When 14302 was withdrawn in 1929 the tender was made a spare one and was laiter attached to 17302 for a few years.

No. Date Rebuilt. Renumbered L.M.S. No. Withdrawn

60

1885 12/1901

1060 in 1916

17 in 1916

1060 in 1922

14303

1929

61

1885 11/1895

1061 in 1916

14295

1925

62

1885

4/1902

1062 in 1916

87 in 1916

1062 in 1922

14304

1931

63

1885

4/1902

1063 in 1916

1916

64

1885 12/1901

1064 in 1917

1921

65

1885

6/1901

1065 in 1916

1917

66

1884

3/1901

1066 in 1922

14298

1930

67

1884 11/1902

1915

1067 in 1922

14290

1927

68

1884

2/1902

1068 in 1922

14291

1924

69

1884

5/1902

1911

1069 in 1922

14292

1925

70

1884

4/1901

1070 in 1922

14299

1927

71

1884

7/1898

1071 in 1922

14300

1927

72

1884

1891

1903

1072 in 1922

14293

1924

73

1884

2/1902

1073 in 1922

14301

1928

74

1885

8/1901

1074 in 1922

14294

1923

75

1885

5/1901

1075 in 1922

14302

1929

76

1889

6/1905

1076 in 1920

1920

77

1889

3/1907

1077 in 1920

1922

78

1889 10/1903

1078 in 1920

1921

79

1889 11/1899

1079 in 1920

14297

1928

83

1891

1909

1083  in 1921

14305

1928

84

1889 12/1906

1084  in 1921

14306

1927

87

1889 10/1903

1087 in 1915

1922

88

1891

7/1907

1088 in 1921

15 in 1922

1015 in 1922

14309

1930

89

1891

8/1889

1089 in 1921

1921

90

1891

9/1906

1090 in 1921

14307

1924

91

1891

5/1902

1091 in 1921

1922

113 1891 10/1903

1113 in 1916

1922

114 1886 12/1887

8/1906

1124 in 1916

14296

1925

Notes:-Nos. 66 to 75 came from Neilson & Co., Makers' Nos. 3058 to 3067. No. 124 was built by Dubs & Co .. Makers' No. 2245. All other engines of the class were built at the St. Rollox Works.
The class were easy running engines and under favourable conditions could .give a good account of themselves. In September, 1925, No. 14298 (formerly CR. No. 66) brought the 10.0 a.m. ex Euston from Carlisle to Glasgow in booked time. The load on that occasion was 308 tons. Water was taken at Beattock while the banker was being attached.
The road numbers of the 4-4-0 engines which received the large boiler were 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 70, 71, 73, 75 and 84. The fitting of the larger boiler to No. 84 was certainly not done at the 1906 rebuilding but there is no doubt about the engine being fitted at some period prior to this date. There is a photograph of the engine on the Tinto Express which shows the large boiler and there is also the early safety first set of illustrations issued when the engine is shown with a porter failing to make the jump to the platform after crossing the lines to attend to the incoming train.

Tank engines for Sierra Leone. 146. illustration
Three 2-6-2T locomotives completed by the Hunslet Engine Co., Ltd., for the Sierra Leone Railway to the requirements of the Crown Agents for the Colonies help to focus attention on the requirements for shunting engines on 2 ft. 6 in. gauge lines carrying heavy traffic. Where, as on the Sierra Leone lines, trains are made up to the maximum that can be hauled by Garratts and eight-coupled tender types, it is difficult, with the restricted axle loads, to produce a compact shunting locomotive able to break up the heaviest trains brought in and yet fit within, the physical restrictions.
These new 2-6-2T engines Nos. 81 to 83 represent the solution for the Freetown wharves and yard, and two features may be noted indicating severe limitations imposed on the designer. The first is the extraordinarily low axle load of 4½ tons maximum; the second is the necessity to traverse many curves of two chains radius on the wharf tracks. Though the rigid wheelbase is only 5 ft. 6 in., it is still considered advantageous to thin the flanges of the intermediate coupled wheels. Other features to meet local conditions are the fitting of a spark arrester in the smokebox to eliminate any risk of fires being caused in the warehouse area; the coating of the inside of the boiler shell with Portland cement to prevent corrosion by the poor water; and the small size of grate to cut down the waste of fuel during standby periods. The arrangements of the tanks and the small side bunkers behind them ensures that the weight distribution remains even as the water and fuel supplies are used.
Leading dimensions were: two outside cylinders 10¾ in. by 15 in., 28-in. wheels; boiler pressure 160 psi; tractive effort at 75 per cent. boiler pressure 7,450 lb.; factor of adhesion in full working order 3.85; total wheelbase 15 ft. 4 in.; length over buffer beams 18 ft. 10 in.; maximum height 10 ft. 53/8 in.; heating surface 345 ft2. from 97 tubes of 13/8 in. o.d., and 36 ft2 from the firebox, total 381 ft2; grate area 6¼ ft2.; tank capacity 470 gal.; fuel capacity 45 cu: ft.; total weight 21¼  tons.
The boiler is 3 ft. 2¾ in. outside diameter and pitched with its centre only 4 ft. 11¼ in.. above rail level; distance between tubeplates is 8 ft. 4½ in. The round top firebox has girder stays only on the crown and the grate is only 1 ft. 11¾ in long contrasted with its width of 3 ft. 2¼ in. The cylinders are set at a slope of 1 in 24 and drive the rear coupled wheels though 4 ft.10½in. rods, and the Walschaerts gear operates flat side valves having ¾  in. lap and 1/8 in. lead. Connecting and coupling rods are fitted with Ajax hard grease nipples.
Other fittings include a Wakefield slight-feed lubricator fer the cylinders and steam chests, and for the United States metallic packing round the piston rods and valve spindles; two 1½-in. Ross safety valves; steam and hand brakes to all coupled wheels, and automatic vacuum equip- ment for train brakes; independent underhung laminated springs; gravity standing for each direction, with boxes at boiler-top level; and welded steel side tanks.

L.M.S.R. 146
New 4-6-0 Class 5 mixed traffic engines in service are Nos. 4773 to 4779 (built at Crewe), Nos. 4789 to 4791 (built at Horwich); also 2-6-4 Class 4 tanks Nos. 2273 to 2278 (built at Derby). The following engines had been withdrawn from service.— Class 4P, No. 14762 Glen Campbell (Highland), 14632 (Caledonian), 25957 (L.N.W.); 4-4-0 Class 2P, No. 14408 Ben Hope (Highland); 2-4-2 Class 1PT, Nos. 6619, 6653, 6728 (L.N.W.); 0-6-2 Class 2PT, Nos. 6894, 6930 (L.N.W); 0-4-4 Class 4PT, No. 15115 (Caledonian); 0-6-0 Class 3F, No. 17703 (Highland); 0-6-0 Class 2F, Nos. 3116, 3358, 3677, 22822 (Midland), 28240, 28422, 28524, 28610 (L.N.W.); 0-8-2 Class 6FT, Nos. 7876, 7878 (L.N.W.); 0-6-2 Class 2FT, Nos. 7682, 7690, 7709, 7823 (L.N.W.); 0-6-0 Class  1FT, No. 1891 (Midland); and 0-4-0 Rail Motor No. 10600 (L. & Y.).

Locomotive Testing Station. 147
In 1937 the L.M.S. and L.N.E.R. companies decided jointly to construct and equip a Locomotive Testing Station at Rugby, and thus provide, in this country, a much needed plant for research and experimental work in connection with the design of steam locomotives. The station, the cost of which was upwards of £150,000, was planned to embody the principal features of similar plant established in other countries, notably that at Vitry, in France. but with certain important modifications dictated by the latest experience.
By the autumn of 1939 the buildings were nearly completed. but work had to be suspended on the outbreak .of war, which also held up the manufacture of the apparatus required. A contract for the latter had been placed with Heenan & Froude Ltd. of Worcester, who had sub- contracted with A.J. Amsler, of Schaffhouse, Switzerland, for the dynamometric equipment.
Immediately on the conclusion of hostilities steps were taken to resume work. The buildings are being completed, the manufacture of the plant is in full swing, a start has been made with the installation of the machinery at Rugby and it is hoped that the dynamometric instruments will be despatched from Switzerland during October. It is anticipated that the Testing Station which, but for the war, would have been completed in 1940, will be in operation by the middle of next year.

Model Engineer Exhibition. 147
The twenty-second Exhibition was held at the New Horticultural Hall, Westminster, from 20-30 August. The steam locomotive section attracted twenty entries of 10 mm. scale or over and the standard of the models exhibited was higher than ever. Among the outstanding entries may be mentioned a 1½ in. scale 0-4-0 saddle tank by W.G. Dennis, a 1 in. scale L.M.S. 5XP by J.I. Austen-Walton (who obtained the Championship Cup awarded for locomotives), and ¾in. scale engines by G. Archer and E. Kench who both exhibited Royal Scots. Princess class locomotives of similar scale were the work of W.D. Hollings and N.E. Nicholson. A ¾i in. scale engine by A.W.G. Tucker was of interest in that among other features it incorporated Holcroft's valve gear. A 10 mm. scale L.M.S. class 5 engine by E. R. Morton was an outstanding entry wonderfully complete despite its small size.

G.W.R. restaurant car No. 9673 . 147
Bore a bronze plaque to commemorate its service in the wartime special train used by Churchill and the Cabinet. It formed part of the Torbay Express.

Brunels bridge at Chepstow. 147
Built in 1852, was having its wrought iron land spans, each- 100 ft. long, replaced by steel spans of modern design.
A special vehicle fitted with two diesel-electric hoists was being built at Swindon for track relaying in the Severn Tunnel. Specially designed waterproof road-rail containers have been constructed for carrying cement direct from the factory to the working site. Each container will hold 3½ tons of cement, loaded three to a wagon.

L.N.E.R. 147
With the approval of the Minister of Transport, the L.N.E.R. is to resume the work of electrifying its Manchester-Sheffield main line, together with the lines from Barnsley Junction to Wath and from Fairfielfl to Trafford Park and Manchester Central, a total of 75 route miles or 300 track miles, including sidings. The scheme will cost approximately £6 millions and take four years to finish. Electric locomotives will haul all trains between Manchester and Sheffield and will be fitted with electrically-heated boilers so as to maintain steam heating in the passenger trains. Between Manchester (London Road), Hadfield and Glossop, however, a suburban service will be provided by multiple unit electric trains. Partly for this reason main electric repair shops and running sheds for dealing with inspection, repairs and general overhaul of the electric locomotives and electric rolling stock will be located at Levenshulme, six miles from Manchester. There will also be two smaller running sheds at Darnall, near Sheffield, and at Wath.

L.M.S.R. 147
Included .in the 150 locomotives being built this year were 20 of a new design of freight locomotive of the 2-6-0 type (4F Classification). The full programme is as under:—

To be Built at:

Class 7P, 4-6-2 Passenger

2

Crewe

Class 5, 4-6-0 Mixed Traffic

70

Crewe & Horwich
Class 4, 2-6-4T

48

Derby

Class 4F, 2-6-0 Freight (New Design)

20

Crewe

Class 2F, 2-6-0 Freight

10

Crewe

Total 150

The two 4-6-2 locomotives will be a development of the existing Duchess class and will incorporate roller bearings to all the axles of both locomotive and tender. The bearings will be supplied by British Timken Ltd. and the Skefko Ball Bearing Co. Ltd.
Of the Class 5, 4-6-0 locomotives, thirty will be re-designed and equipped as under:—
10 with Roller Bearings and Walschaerts Valve Gear.
10 with Roller Bearings and Caprotti Valve Gear.
10 with Plain Bearings and Caprotti Valve Gear.
These three groups of locomotives will be very carefully tested one against another, and also in comparison with a batch of ten standard Class 5 locomotives having plain bearings and Walschaerts Valve Gear. The trials of these 40 locomotives will include not only the usual dynamometer car tests. but also a detailed comparison of costs. The Caprotti valve gear will be supplied by the Associated Locomotive 乐彩网17500cn Co. Ltd. and the Roller Bearings which will be applied to all axles of both locomotive and tender will be supplied by British Timken Ltd. The 2-6-4 tank locomotives follow the existing design introduced two years ago, and the Class 2F 2-6-0 are identical with the new small freight locomotives already in traffic.
The Class 4F 2-6-0 locomotive is to be a new design and supersedes the well-known standard Class 4F 0-6-0 designed by Sir Henry Fowler as long ago as 19II, of which no less than 772 are at work. The new locomotive will have two outside cylinders, a double blast pipe and chimney, and all the latest features which nave been incorporated into recent L.M.S. practice.

W.G. Bagnall Ltd.  147
The whole of the shares in W.G. Bagnall Ltd. have been acquired by Heenan and Froude Ltd. of Worcester. Alan P. Good is the new Chairman of Bagnall's.

Correspondence. 147

Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. James F. McEwan
Watson (see letter on page 95) is correct about the date of renumbering, it was in 1895 Wallace (see page 96) mentions Nos. 555 and 560 on loan to the H. Ry. Author omitted reference to these because other engines were loaned at times when these two were in the shops for overhaul. Since the matter has been raised mention can be made of the Aberdeen 0-6-0 which was the only engine in steam on the Sunday when the special train bringing Lord Kitchener for his ill-fated visit to Russia, arrived at Aberdeen. The sea trip was supposed to begin at Aberdeen but the Authorities decided to start from Scapa instead. The decision to alter the destination had not been notified to the Railway Cos. and a last minute arrangement had to be made. The G.N.S. Ry. had no spare engine available and it was decided to send the C. Ry. 0-6-0 through to Keith, or Elgin as necessary. The engine later arrived in Inverness.

Reviews. 148

L.M.S.R. 148. illustration
A series of artistic "IN PERSPECTIVE" quad royal posters had been issued .. They were intended to stimulate interest in the more familiar items of railway equipments. They depict The Locomotive, The Carnage, The Track, The Permanent Way'; and The Footplate.
The Day Begins reproduced from a new L.M.S. quad royal poster by Terence Cuueo.

The Mistley, Thorpe & Walton Railway. Thomas B. Peacock. 19 pp., 10 illustrations and map. 148
This is a very full and interesting history of one of the few railway companies which failed to complete the task of building its railway and should be read in conjunction with the records of other railways in East Anglia. Except for a small efror in the first paragraph the information is authentic. The line was opened from Colchester to Hythe in July, 1849, and thence to Wivenhoe for general traffic in May 1863.

Name plates of the L.N.E.R. locomotives: compiled by F. Burridge. Sydenham & Co., Bournemouth. 148
Engine name plates are often nowadays quite artistic: the Southern displays coloured coats of arms of towns and shipping companies, the L.M.S. shows us regimental crests, whilst the L. & N.E.R. gives us foxes and footballs amongst other insignia. This publication completes the series covering the four main British groups. Over fifty illustrations s how the various shapes and letterings used and the model maker anxious to have his work correct in these details will find all he needs in these booklets.

An A.B.C. of London Transport has just been published by the L.P.T.B. 148
This pocket encyclopaedia contains a large number of interesting facts, arranged in alphabetical order, relating to this vast organisation. Those desiring copies should apply to Mr. C. A. Lyon, Press and Publications Officer, 55, Broadway, London, S.W.1. Listed under London Transport in Ottley 811. It was not an Ian Allan joob.

Practical hints for footplate men. Southern Rly. 148
Distributed gratis to all the 659乐彩's enginemen. This is an excellent publication. It is well produced, well illustrated—some of the coloured diagrams are especially good—and it is extremely well written. We cannot recall any similar publication which contains so much information in a similar space. .
The book is primarily intended to assist in training new firemen but contains much which experienced men will find of use and interest. The text is the work of S. C. Townroe of the Traffic Manager's Motive Power Dept. and valuable assistance has been given by the 659乐彩's Chief Mechanical Engineer, O. V.· Bulleid. It is unfortunate that this book is not available to others outside the S.R.

Standard gauge light railways. R.W. Kidner. Oakwood Press,
This is a second edition of No. 4 in the author's well-known series of light railway handbooks. It has been considerably revised, including new illustrations, and contains much useful information on a class of railway which is unfortunately almost extinct.

The Fowler and Stanier locomotives of the L M S 1923-1947. C. Langley Aldrich. 148
Particulars and illustrations, together with various notes, are given relating to the locomotives designed by the C.M.Es. mentioned in the title and in addition the two new engines designed by H. G. Ivatt are included. This book generally follows the style of the author's previous publications; these are in principle useful and interesting compilations but in our view would gain con- siderably by the omission of the author's opinions which, In the book under review, range from the nomination of a suitable C.M.E. for the railways after nationalisation to a suggested regional scheme for nationalisation. In books of this description it is better to confine the contents to facts.

A.B.C. of  G.W.R. locomotives. Ian Allan. 148
This is the sixth edition of this book which generally follows the lines of former editions with corrections up to 1 June 1947.

A.B.C. of  L.M.S. locomotives. Ian Allan. 148
This is another edition of the book relating to this 659乐彩's locomotive stock and in addition to lists includes various illustrations and particulars of sheds and locomotive superintendents of the constituent companies. In any future editions the last-mentioned will no doubt be completed, e.g., three superintendents are missing from the North Staffordshire list and no mention is made of Smellie's connection with the Maryport and Carlisle Rly.

The Line that Jack built. Ian Allan.
An interesting little book containing many illustrations of the R.H. & D.R. These cover the history of the line from its earliest days and with few exceptions have not appeared previously. /

The railways of Switzerland. The Railway Gazette.
Issued in connection with the International Congress recently held at Lucerne. It contains many illustrations, maps, and line drawings and comprehensively covers the Swiss railway system from its inception up to the present time. .

Issue Number 662 (15 October 1947)

Availability. 149-50.
Editorial built around Rudgard's ILocoE paper Organisation and carrying-out of examinations and repairs of locomotives at running sheds in relationship to locomotive performance and availability.

Hump shunting locomotives, L.N.E.R. 150-1. illus.
Early statistics of diesel electric shunting locomotives Nos. 8000-8003 performance at Whitemoor Yard in March.

Smith, Vernon L. The American logging locomotive. 151-2. 5i llustrations, 2 diagrams.
Continued from page 137

Morris, O.J. Standardising S.R. locomotives, Central Section. 155-8. 2 illus., diagrs., tables
Continued from 51 page 151.

Opie, R. Locomotive power, performance and rating. 159-61. table.

L.M.S.R. mobile testing unit. 162-3. 3 illus., diagr.
Mobile testing plant for controlled road testing using electric generators coupled to the carriage bogies via Andrews-English Electric flexible drives. One of illus. shows test train hauled by Class 5 with wind measuring equipment mounted on front of locomotive.

Southern Railway. 163
The first of the Battle of Britain class locomotives had been named: 21C 151: Winston Churehill, 21C 152 Lord Dowding, 21C 153 Sir Keith Park and 21C 154 Lord Beaverbrook, 21C 155 Fighter Pilot, 21C 164 Fighter Command,  21C 165 Hurricane 21C 166 Spitfire and 21C 167 Tangmere. They have narrower cabs with windows at an angle compared to the earlier Light Pacifics.

2ft. 6in. gauge locomotives for India.  164
Six 0-6-2Ts supplied by Hunslet Engine Co. to the order of T.A. Martin & Co. and to inspection of T. Barnard Hall & Jones for use on Barasat-Basrhat Light Railway and Bukhtiarpur-Bikar Railway. Maximum axle load 6½ tons. Cylinders 10½ x 16in; coupled wheel diameter 33in.; total heating surface 367ft2, working pressure 160 psi.

Issue Number 663 (15 November 1947)

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 177-8;

Issue Number 664 (15 December 1947)

Nationalisation. 181.
Lists names of Chief Regional Officers (Darbyshire CRO LMR misspelt Derbyshire) and Railway Executive members Notes T.H. Moffat, Deputy CRO Scottish Region

A stainless-steel coach. 182-3. 3 illustrations.
Pressed Steel 659乐彩 associated with Budd Corporation named Silver Princess: compartments for first; open saloon for third class..

G.V.O. Bulkeley. The 4-8-0 locomotive on Colonial railways. 187-8. diagram (side elevation)
Author was former General Manager Nigerian Railwaay.

Dock shunting by diesel. 188-90. illustration
Hunslet locomotive on Mersey Docks & Harbour Board railways.

L.M.S.R. appointments. 190..
Mr. A. M. Todd, District Locomotive Superintendent, Bank Hall; Mr. G.W. Miller, District Locomotive Superintendent, Skipton; Mr. E. C. Bourne, District Locomotive Superintendent, Kentish Town; Mr. E. A. Talbot, District Locomotive Superintendent, Saltley; Mr. J. A. W. Knapman, District Locomotive Superintendent, Longsight; Mr. H. H. Mason, Assistant District Locomotive Superintendent, Crewe (North); Mr. A. E. Robson, Superintendent, Carriage and Wagon Works, C.M.E. Department, Derby; Mr. T. F. B. Simpson, Superintendent, Loco. Works, C.M.E. Department, Derby; Mr. J. M.. Chalmers, Assistant District Locomotive Superintendent, Inverness; and Mr. A. C. Booth, Assistant District Locomotive Superintendent, Perth.

Engine Lighting 乐彩网17500cn on G.W.R. 190-1. 2 illustrations
A experimental lighting set, manufactured by the Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd. fitted ·to 4-6-0 oil fired engine No. 3904, St. Brides Hall.

W.M. Gowan Gradon. Some West Cumberland locos. (Fletcher Jennings & 659乐彩). 191-3. 2 illustrations
Illustrations show 0-4-0 Abernant on 2ft 8in gauge Aberdare Iron 659乐彩's lines which included gradients as steep as 1 in 14 and 0-6-0 Will o' the Wisp of the Ebbw Vale Iron Co. Other locomotives were purchased by Branson & Murray in connection with constructing defences for Plymouth harbour; the Norley Coal & Cannel Co. of Wigan; the Plymouth Iron Co., Aberdare; tyhe Tredegar Iron Co.; the Dowlais Iron Co.; the Aberdovey Slate Co.; Barrow Haematite Steel Co.;the General Mining Association of Nova Scotia; William Whitwell & Co. of Stockton-on-Tees; and Gaskell, Deacon & Co. of Widnes.

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.193-5: . illustration
4-2-2 No. 123 including its performance during the races of  August 1888.

2-8-0 freight locomotive Trujillo Railway, Peru. 195-6. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Hunslet Engine Co. for Peruvian Corporation: 3ft gauge.

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