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Scientists (chemists, physicists, metallurgists, analysts)
steamindex 659乐彩 page

Adams, T.H.
Chief chemical analyst, Derby from 1928: Locomotive Mag., 1928, 34, 203.

Allen, Jack
Professor of Engineering at Aberdeen University and member of British Transport Commission's Scientific Advisory Council (Locomotive Mag., 1957, 63, 20).
The Department of Engineering had been founded in 1923. Until 1946 it focussed on the teaching of undergraduates, and on some contacts with engineering companies in the Aberdeen area. It was equipped with a multi-purpose laboratory for teaching solid and fluid mechanics (incompressible flows only) in quite large scale fixed equipment. In 1946, after a wartime period in which the Department was led by Dr James Grassie and the sole Engineering Chair was left vacant, Dr Jack Allenwas appointed to the Jackson Chair. He remained Head of Department until 1970 and began a strong tradition in civil engineering hydraulics in Aberdeen. His approach to the subject was based on techniques learnt at Manchester University as a student and lecturer there. He had been taught by A.H. Gibson who had himself been a pupil of Osborne Reynolds (1842 – 1912). Allen’s primary interest was in the application of dimensional analysis to practical engineering problems, usually via physical hydraulic models. Professor Allen dedicated a lot of time and laboratory space to studies of Aberdeen harbour and to shoaling in the estuary of the River Tay (he was engineering advisor to the River Tay Commissioners for some years). The work on Aberdeen harbour was limited in its impact on engineering work there because the accommodation available for model studies constrained the model scales that could be chosen and this, to some extent, undermined the authority of the findings. When he began work on the Tay estuary problem, he undertook the supervision of a very large model of the estuary located in the premises of the Dundee Harbour Board and operated a second, smaller model in parallel in his department at Aberdeen. The second model was used to examine the difficulty of appropriate scaling, in particular the scaling of sediment movements in the estuary.

Auld, Samuel James Manson
Noted that was on the Board of the American Locomotive Export Co. Inc. (Locomotive Mag., 1949, 55, 144). Botn on 25 July 1884; died 19 August 1949. Chemical engineer who had trained at Queen Mary College and Uniiversities of Wurtzberg and Leipzig. Involved in gas and fire warfare during WW1. With Anglo-Persian Oil Co. 1919-1928 and with Vacuum Oil Co. 1930-52. O.B.E. MC, D.Sc.

Bairstow, Stanley
Chemist from Crewe who moved to Stonebridge Park and thence to Derby. Involved in fuel combution research and in producer gas prior to WW2. Wise Railway Research 

Binns, V.
Chemist from Crewe: worked with Bairstow on combustion reseach. Wise Railway Research 

Byrne, Basil R.
Appointed to the LBSCR Test House at Brighton which under the Southern Railway the work was moved to Ashford. Byrne and his boss Taylor did not frequently communicate by the spoken word, this system suited Byrne since his work load was light; he thus had plenty of time in which to pursue his reading and to conduct his own experiments. Physics led him into more advanced optics and then to the subject of photoelasticity, newly described by M Frocht and by Coker and Filon. It now becomes necessary to attempt a brief description of this rather complex phenomenon. Photoelasticity derives from the fact that certain transparent "plastic" materials such as celluloid, perspex and some epoxy resins show the phenomenon of "birefringence" when viewed in polarised light while subject at the same time to stress. If, therefore, a two dimensional model of an engineering component made in, say, perspex is loaded as it would be in service (to scale) and examined in a beam of polarised light, a pattern of coloured interference fringes will be seen, particularly in the more highly stressed areas of the model. The colours and the number of fringes are proportional to the level of stress and also indicate the direction of stress. Thus a survey of the whole model can be used as a study of the stress distribution in magnitude and direction.
Byrne built his own polariscope, principally from second-hand lenses and odds and ends bought at his own expense. He was soon able to perform photoelastic tests, but without attracting any interest from his superiors until the CME, O.V.S Bulleid, learned of his work. It was apparent that the availability of this stress procedure was very timely as Bulleid, then engaged on the design of the Merchant Navy class locomotives, decided to move away from the classic spoked driving wheel in favour of a double plate type wheel similar to those used in the USA. He had a design ready, the BFB wheel (joint with Firth Brown) but before finally committing himself he wished to be satisfied that the BFB wheel was superior in terms of the level of stress. Here the problem and the new technique came together: Byrne was invited or instructed to make the comparison on his new-fangled and 659乐彩 made polariscope. Byrne, with the assistance of the Works toolroom, produced beautiful 1110 scale models in celluloid of the two wheels and, in a scientific "tour de force", a detailed comparison of the stresses was completed, reaching the safe conclusion that the BFB wheel was greatly superior.
This brought Byrne very much to the attention of Bulleid so that other projects and enquiries came his way. Meanwhile Taylor retired; Byrne became "Materials Supervisor" which meant that in addition to his scientific work he had to administer the inspection organisation. However, the new post gave him more power and also access to Southern Railway money for the purchase of equipment. This enabled him to pursue another great personal interest, X-radiography and its industrial applications. In furtherance of this enthusiasm he was fortunate to learn of a general practitioner in the West Country who was about to retire and wished to sell his diagnostic X-ray set of 150 kY capacity. Byrne was able to purchase it for £40; installation in the Ashford Physical Laboratory was very much more expensive because of its complex and elderly power and control system. It was very slow in use on engineering materials as well as being dangerous since it was neither ray nor shockproof. But it would penetrate ¾-inch of steel plate and could be used on realistically sized welded joints, simulating those being designed for the Merchant Navy boilers. The acquisition of this X-ray unit was superbly timed. It made an immediate impression on the quality of welding at Ashford, demonstrated without question the value of the procedure and caused a new Philips 150 kY set to be purchased for use at Eastleigh on the Merchant Navy boilers constructed there, Hargreaves being one of the principal beneficiaries. It is interesting to recall that at about the same period a Phillips X-ray unit of the same type was acquired by the Metallurgical Section of the LMS Research Department. Meanwhile Byrne contrived to have a greatly superior 250 kY X-ray unit imported from the USA for use in his laboratory and subsequently at Brighton when construction of West Country class locomotives started there in 1944.
Byrne was fortunate in that his personal scientific interests led to his ability to make major contributions to the Southern; his timing was also first class. These qualities paid personal dividends as in 1944 he was appointed Bulleid's Research Assistant and allowed to recruit staff (previously he had had one technical assistant and about ten inspectors scattered across the industrial North) and to acquire the basic necessities in laboratory equipment. The Physical Laboratory then became not only the 659乐彩 of the inspection service but also provided a metallurgical service to Ashford, Brighton and Lancing Works and advice on, and control of, welding in the same works and in some of the larger sheds and depots. (Hargreaves provided a similar service at Eastleigh and to the old LSWR steam sheds). But the principal activity in the Ashford Laboratory was research into a variety of problems, mostly of a metallurgical nature, and the development of apparatus and techniques for the measurement of stress. The photoelastic bench was upgraded with proper optical equipment, much work was done on the use of hand-held mechanical extensometers and of course there was the new wonder tool, the electric resistance strain gauge, for which the measuring apparatus had to be made and the techniques of application mastered. In the middle of all this activity the new science of ultrasonic testing (then known as supersonic testing) burst upon the scene as a potential solution to the problem of detecting cracks in carriage axles. It became instantly essential to understand the principles behind this process, to work out the procedures for application to Southern carriage axles, to train staff to operate equipment, and to install the method in Lancing and Eastleigh Works and the electric stock depots around London. Meanwhile, metallurgical research was being concentrated on the cause of the relatively frequent fracture of tyres on the driving wheels of electric multiple unit suburban trains, and on the cause and possible cure of corrosion fatigue cracking of inner firebox plates and stays in Merchant Navy boilers. This problem was in fact cured simply and elegantly by Bulleid's decision to apply the TIA water treatment to these locomotives In the first years of peace after 1945, applied science seemed to stand high in public opinion; most industries were setting up research groups and because of this atmosphere and of his successes Byrne's star was in the ascendant within the CME Department. He was transferred to Brighton to be available to Bulleid and the Design Office, leaving his staff, now ten in number, qualified or semi­qualified, to carry out the laboratory work at Ashford. Outside the railway, in learned society circles he was regarded as an authority on industrial radiography and, a little later, on non-destructive testing in general.

Unfortunately, there was a snag, in that the laboratory had no formal or established existence as seen by Southern Railway management, nor did it receive any official instructions on policy or on projects to investigate. Much of the work was based on the inclinations and interests of the staff, so that the situation could arise in which one member of the staff was engaged in high vacuum technology in order to make measurements of internal stress by X -ray diffraction methods, while another was, at the request of Ashford Works, setting up a system for the training and testing of welders and a third was busy trying to find out why, reputedly, the tail lamp on the up Golden Arrow train was, much too frequently, going out on the stretch between Ashford and Tonbridge.
The bubble burst in 1949 when O V S Bulleid retired. His successor was S B Warder, an electrical engineer, whose appointment foreshadowed the future traction policy of the Southern Region. Warder soon showed that those who had been close to Bulleid were no longer in favour; Byrne was sent back to Ashford and the special connection between the Physical Laboratory and CME headquarters was broken. Fortunately, requests for work were now coming from other departments or from officers of the new Railway Executive; the laboratory had to concentrate on a variety of carriage and wagon studies, on sub-contracted fatigue testing of rails and on a major examination of the propagation of ultrasound in objects like axles in order to understand the peculiar results being obtained wherever ultrasonic testing was practised.
On the 1 January 1951 the British Railways Research Department came into being and the Ashford Laboratory became part of its Engineering Division, Byrne being given the title of Assistant Superintendent. An exciting and valuable era subsided into more orthodox activities, probably of greater value to the railway industry.. Wise Railway Research. noted that he was eventually moved to Derby where he was introduced to the Duke of Edinburgh when the new laboratory opened. 

Cook, Maurice
Paper (suspect one of several) of PhD metallurgist. Copper and copper alloys for locomotive firebox construction. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1938, 28, 609-42. Disc.: 642-7. 25 diagrams., 7 tables. (Paper No. 393). presented at Fifth Ordinary General Meeting of the Birmingham Centre held at the Queen’s Hotel, Birmingham, on Wednesday, 16 February 1938, at 7.0 p.m., the chair being taken by G.T. Owen. Metallurgical paper which pointed towards higher quality copper with lower oxygen and arsenic contents.

Darcy, W.
Had died by 1947 and had been at Crewe where succeeded by G.E. Wilson (Locomotive Mag, 1947, 53, 15), but had been head chemist, St. Rollox from 1928: Locomotive Mag., 1928, 34, 203.

Davidson, A.S.

Dearden, John
Works Metallurgist at St. Rollox Works, but had been trained at Horwich. In 1935 moved to Derby under O'Neill, Chief Metallurgist. Dearden stated;" If a component wore badly it was replaced; if it broke in service it was made heavier and stronger. Failure by fatigue was regarded as death by natural causes". Wise Railway Research.: John Dearden who had been appointed to the post to replace O'Neill as Chief Metallurgist in 1947. The formation in 1950 of the Office for Research and Experiments (ORE), a subsidiary of the Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer (UIC). ORE was based in Utrecht and was intended to be staffed on the basis of having engineers or scientists from member railways seconded to it for a period of one or two years. John Dearden went to Utrecht in February 1951 and became a foundation member of ORE and the first British "Conseiller Technique" at Utrecht,

Dines, John Somers
Born in the Cuckfield district, of West Sussex on 18 June 1885; died 15 May 1980.  Son of meteorologist William Henry Dines and grandson of meteorologist George Dines. He graduated from Cambridge in 1906, with a degree in mathematics. He worked with his father, at Pyrton Hill, Oxfordshire, for a year, carrying out investigations of the upper atmosphere. In September 1907, Dines became employed by the Met Office. In 1912, he became responsible for the new branch of the Met Office at South Farnborough, where investigations of wind structure for the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics were conducted. Accompanied by Gordon Miller Bourne Dobson in autumn 1913, he visited six stations in Germany to see how they dealt with forecasting and aviation work (KPJ and presumably on ozone in the Harz Moutains). Dines had transferred to the Forecast Division by March 1916, and remained there for many years. John Somers Dines was also the brother of Lewen Henry George Dines, also a meteorologist and engineer. In 1935 (12 April) he wrote a letter to The Engineer (reproduced in Backtrack, 2018, 32, 472) in hich he comments on the report of A3 Pacific No. 2750 Papyrus achieving 108 mile/h on 5 March 1936 and compared this with his records of locomotive performance on the Cheltenham Flyer leaving Swindon in terms of acceleration

Egerton, Alfred Charles Glyn
Born 11 October 1886 in Glyn Cywarch, near Talsarnau, Gwynedd, Wales; died 7 September 1959 in Mouans-Sartoux, France. Educated at Eton College from 1900 to 1904, then entered University College, London, where he read chemistry under the tutelage of Sir William Ramsay. He graduated in 1908 with first-class honours, and went to Nancy University to perform post-graduate work. He intended to then proceed to Germany, but this was cut short in 1909 by an offer of a position as an instructor at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. His research there was largely devoted to nitrogen oxides, on which he published three papers in 1913 and 1914. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant on 1 July 1909 in University of London contingent of the Officers' Training Corps. In 1913 he went to Berlin to work in the laboratory of Walther Nernst. Frederick Lindemann was also there at this time, and the two became friends. During the July Crisis in 1914, Nernst helped Egerton and his wife leave Germany. They arrived back in England on 3 August 1914. Egerton joined the Coldstream Guards, but was soon seconded to the Department of Explosives Supply in the Ministry of Munitions, where he helped with the design and construction of the chain of National Explosives Factories in response to the Shell Crisis of 1915. Two of his brothers were killed in the war. During the final stages of the war, he was engaged in studying the problem of synthetic ammonia production. In January 1919, soon after the war ended, he joined an Inter-Allied mission under Harold Hartley, the Controller of the Chemical Warfare Department in the Ministry of Munitions, to study the German chemical industry. He found that the Germans had been able to produce vast quantities of synthetic ammonia using the Haber process.
He joined the Clarendon Laboratory at Oxford University, where he succeeded Henry Tizard as Reader in Thermodynamics in 1923. He resumed work that he had commenced in Berlin on the vapour pressure of metals. He wrote seven papers on the topic in 1923, but by 1935 he discontinued research in the area, having measured the vapour pressure, heat of vapourisation and specific heat ratios of cadmium, lead, magnesium, potassium, sodium, thallium and zinc. From 1924 on, he had become increasingly interested in combustion. He was particularly interested in the phenomenon of engine knocking, and how it might be prevented. He studied the propagation of flames, the mechanism of hydrocarbon oxidation, and the role of peroxides in their combustion. For his research, he created a special kind of burner that could create a stationary plane flame front for the purpose of examining the flame's properties.
Egerton was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1925, and served on its council from 1931 to 1933, and as its Physical Secretary from 1938 to 1948. He also served on several quangos, including the Scientific and Advisory Committee of Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, the Fuel Research Board, the Heating and Ventilating Research Committee, the Engine Committee of the Aeronautical Research Council, the Water Pollution Board and the Advisory Committee of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway. In 1936, he assumed the chair of Chemical Technology at the Imperial College of Science. During the Second World War he pioneered the use of liquid methane as an alternative to petrol as a fuel for motor vehicles. Trials were carried out with a bus on a route in the Midlands. He was a member of the War Cabinet's Scientific Advisory Committee, and was Chairman of the Admiralty's Fuel and Propulsion Committee. In 1943, he was sent to Washington, DC, to reorganise the British Central Scientific Office there, and to improve scientific liaison with the Americans. In this, he was successful, establishing good relations with American scientific administrators such as Vannevar Bush and James Conant He was knighted for his services on 1 January 1943, an honour which King George VI conferred on him in a ceremony at Buckingham Palace on 9 February 1943. After the war he was awarded the Rumford medal in 1946. He was the Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Council of the Ministry of Fuel and Power from 1948 to 1953, and was director of the Salters' Institute of Industrial Chemistry from 1949 to 1959. Between 1948 and his retirement from the Imperial College of Science in 1952, he published seventeen papers. Mainly off website for him. Wise Railway Research. noted that he was on DSIR Committee which examined case for a Locomotive Testing Station.

Elliott, Archibald Campbell
Born Glasgow, 19 February 1861; died 21 April 1913 when Professor of Engineering at the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, a constituent college of the University of Wales. Educated Universities of Glasgow and of Edinburgh (BSc 1885; DSc 1888). Pupil and subsequently Assistant in the Engineering Department of the Glasgow & South-Western Railway, 1876–81; Assistant to Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and Professor Fleeming Jenkin, FRS, MInstCE, engineers for the Commercial Cable 659乐彩’s undertaking, 1884; Assistant to the Professor of Engineering in the University of Edinburgh, 1885–90; Vice-President, South Wales Institute of Engineers; Member of the Royal Commission on Accidents to Railway Servants, 1899; President, Institution of Locomotive Engineers

Green, F.
Senior chemist, Water Treatment Section, LNER in 1937: contribution to discussion on Hancock's ILocoE paper

Hargreaves, Frank
Assistant chemist Ashford Works. Locomotive. Mag., 1932, 38, 75. was description of his position when he presented a paper to the Locomotivemen's Craft Guild. T Henry Turner noted that Hargreaves was a "first-rate man" and was at Eastleigh examining the steel firerboxes of the Bulleid Pacifics. Wise Railway Research adds that Frank Hargreaves was a chemist/metallurgist whose career commenced on the South Eastern & Chatham Railway in the Chemical Laboratory at Ashford, where in the 1920s he did excellent and original research into the physical and metallurgical properties of the white metal alloys used to form anti-friction bearing surfaces in axleboxes and connecting rod big ends, etc., for locomotives, carriages and wagons. These alloys were extremely important in the running of railways prior to the introduction of roller bearings; there were, however, many "hot boxes". Hargreaves' work, although published, got little official recognition but because he added to the knowledge of the load carrying capacity of white metals it is probable that the thickness and shape of the bearing metal inserts used on the Southern were influenced by his work.
In 1937 a new semi-automated iron foundry came into production at Eastleigh and Hargreaves was sent there as metallurgist-in-charge. Additionally he extended his work to the provision of general laboratory facilities covering metal analysis and testing, control of welding, etc., and generally filled successfully the role of "tame scientist" or "trouble shooter" for the whole of the ex-London & South Western area of the Southern Railway (still far from being an integrated unit). The construction of Merchant Navy locomotives at Eastleigh gave him an opportunity to extend further his activities, particularly with the radiographic examination of welds. Later he developed a very successful specialised technique for the repair welding of severe cracks that were frequently to be found in the inner steel firebox plates of these engines. He continued his service to Eastleigh during the epic problems of the building of the Leader class locomotives. Hargreaves had considerable scientific talents and the ability to use them to solve practical engineering problems. He could have advanced in the CME organisation to much wider responsibilities but for his personality. Unfortunately he was opinionated, rather quarrelsome and unable to suffer gladly fools or even those of a different opinion; these characteristics helped to keep him at Eastleigh.
Hargreaves published his fundamental studies on soft-metal properties in a series of papers in the J. Inst. Metals between 1927 and 1930, for example Effect of work and annealing on the lead-tin eutectic, J. Inst. Metals, 1927, 38, 315-39; see also Vol. 37 (1927) pp 103-110, Vol. 39 (1928) pp 301-327, Vol. 40 (1928) pp 41-54, Vol. 41 (1929) pp 257-288 and Vol. 44 (1930) pp 149-174.

Harris, F.W.
First chemist employed at Swindon Works: from 1882-1900. Russell

Hayhurst, Horace
LMS chemist who specialised in jnsect infestation such as grain and cotton in transit and storage: monograph published by Chapman & Hall in 1940, revised 1942. Wise Railway Research.

Henderson, W.P.
Chemist at Glasgow St. Rollox Works from 1921 initially under Caledonian Railway and then on LMS. Russell.Head chemist, Horwich from 1928: Locomotive Mag., 1928, 34, 203.

Herbert, T. Martin
Had reported on firebox stays on LNWR 0-8-0 locomotives at Springs Branch in January 1930. (Talbot Eight-coupled). Also fuller data in Cook's Raising steam: see Belpaire boilers. Ran LMS Research Department from its inception until his retirement in 1961.(Cox Locomotive panorama V.2). Wise Railway Research (see entry for Merritt).

Inglis, Colin C.
Chief Research Officer, British Transport Commission. Appointed in 1952 whilst Martin Herbert was in charge of British Railways' Research Department. Inglis joined the BTC from the Ministry of Supply Armament Design Establishment: he was an electrical engineer. Encountered by Roland C. Bond whilst both working on Ghats electrification project in 1930. Inglis retired in summer of 1964..

Jackson, Sir Herbert
Born in Whitechapel on 17 March 1863; died at his 659乐彩 in Hampstead, on 10 December 1936. Attended King's College School, and in 1879 entered King's College, London, where he worked for thirty-nine years, becoming successively demonstrator, lecturer, and professor of organic chemistry (1905), and Daniell professor of chemistry (1914). He was elected a fellow of the college in 1907, and became emeritus professor in 1918. In 1900 he married Amy, elder daughter of James Collister. They had no children. Jackson covered an immense field in his investigations, but his publications give an entirely inadequate impression of the extent and importance of his work. About 1890, in the course of experiments on the excitation of phosphorescence by means of discharge tubes, he discovered that by using a concave cathode he could concentrate the phosphorescent response of material at the anti-cathode to a small area about the centre of curvature of the cathode. He also observed that phosphorescence was excited in screens held outside the tube, leading others to speculate on how near he had come to anticipating W.K. Röntgen's discovery of X-rays in 1895. With a discharge tube having a concave cathode and inclined anti-cathode, Jackson found that he was able in 1896 to reproduce all Röntgen's effects. This original Jackson ‘focus-tube’ became the prototype of later X-ray tubes. Besides numerous investigations in pure chemistry, Jackson's enquiries extended to such subjects as the weathering of stone, and the action of soaps and solvents in laundry work; his advice on chemical matters was frequently sought by manufacturers. He was greatly interested in oriental ceramics, and his determinations of the colouring agents in glasses and glazes and reproduction of the effects gave much assistance to archaeologists and connoisseurs. He was an expert photographer, a skilled spectroscopist and user of optical instruments, and a master of microscope technique; his wide experience in the interpretation of microscopic observations was often the key to his success. At the beginning of the First World War, British industry lacked the ability to produce glasses for special purposes, having previously imported supplies from Germany and France. Jackson headed an advisory committee appointed in October 1914 to define formulae for the scarcest types of laboratory, heat-resisting, and other glasses, including a full range of optical glasses. Formulae for the most crucial glasses were produced within six months, and published in Nature (1915). Working with his team at King's College and in his private laboratory, Jackson developed over seventy successful formulae. He also advised the glass manufacturers, and helped them to eliminate production problems. For these and other invaluable war services he was appointed KBE in 1917. In the same year he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. In 1918 he resigned his professorship on being appointed the first director of research of the British Scientific Instrument Research Association, a post that he held successfully until his retirement in 1933. Through it, he became the friend and scientific adviser of the optical glass industry, which had been firmly established in Britain as a result of the war. He was president of the Röntgen Society (1901–03) and of the Institute of Chemistry (1918–21), a member of the senate of the University of London, and a governor of the Imperial College of Science; he gave valuable service on many government and scientific committees.
Jackson was a man of infinite resource, of very varied accomplishments, and great personal charm. As a young man he was a notable athlete. He was an entertaining talker, with a wealth of information on lesser known subjects. To those who worked with him, particularly younger colleagues, his help and encouragement were unfailing.
He served on the Advisory Committee on Scientific Research established by the LMS in 1930 until his death. The Board of the LMS instituted the Davidson Award (the first recipient was A.S. Davidson in 1938. Mostly from ODNB entry by Thomas Martin, rev. K. D. Watson and Wise. Also Ellis London Midland & Scottish. KPJ (who is moderately familiar with natural rubber research): it should be noted that the LMS was in the vanguard of scientific researh and researchers should be careful in interpretting Cox's views.

Jamieson, Andrew
Born in October 1849 in Grange, Banffshire, the son of Rev George Jamieson DD, minister of St Machar's Cathedral, and his wife, Jane Wallace. He went to school at the Gymnasium in Old Aberdeen. He was apprenticed to Hall, Russell & 659乐彩, shipbuiklders in Aberdeen, around 1864, at its foundation. He then studied Mathematics and Engineering at Aberdeen University. From 1880 to 1882 he was President of the Institute of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland . From 1880 to 1887 he was Principal of the Glasgow College of Science and Arts. At this time he lived at 38 Bath Street in Glasgow. In 1887 he accepted the role of Professor of Engineering at the West of Scotland Technical College. In 1882 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. His proposers were William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, Fleeming Jenkin, John Gray McKendrick, and George Chrystal. In 1902 he was the consultant engineer on the electrification of Glasgow tramways. He died at 16 Rosslyn Terrace in Glasgow on 4 December 1912. He wrote several major textbooks or treatises on heat engines: see Locomotive Mag., 1919, 25, 138 for review of part of 18th edition partially revised by Ewart S. Andrews who is better known as a strurural engineer. See Locomotive Mag., 1919, 25, 119 for long review of Elementary Manual on heat engines

Jones, Sydney
Born 18 June 1911; died 21 February 1990. Educated Cyfarthfa Castle Grammar School; Cardiff Technical College; Cardiff University College; Birmingham University. BSc 1st class honours (London) 1932; PhD (London) 1951. Employed by General Electric Co., Witton, 1933–36; teaching in Birmingham, 1936–40; Scientific Civil Service at HQ, Royal Radar Establishment, Malvern, and Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, 1940–58; Director of Applications Research, Central Electricity Generating Board, 1958–61; Technical Director, R.B. Pullin, Ltd, 1961–62. Director of Research, BR Board, 1962–65, Member of Board, British Railways, 1965–76, part-time, 1975–76. Chairman, SIRA Instruments Ltd, 1970–78. Chairman, Transport Advisory Committee, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, 1972–77; Independent Consultant, Ground Transport Technology, 1978. Chairman, Conformable Wheel Co., from 1981. Publications: Introductory Applied Science, 1942; papers on automatic control, railways and variable geometry elastic wheels. CBE 1971. (Who Was Who)

Koffman, J.L.
Employed by British Railways, but probably a refugee from Lithuania. Has been visible on rubber page of steamindex for a long time. See Locomotive Mag., 1935, 41, 61 for railcar which was powered by wood gas produced on board from charcoal: the gas consisted of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and nitrogen. ILocoE Paper 682 was savaged by Lindley and Payne of MRPRA

Lewis-Dale, Percy
Chief Chemist, LMS, formerly of LNWR at Crewe Works from 1920: see Paper 295 J. Instn Loco. Engrs. 1932, 22 (the chemist in relation to railway engineering). Russell. Stated as "Assistant Chief Chemist, Crewe in Locomotive Mag., 1928, 34, 203..

Littlewood. John H.
Worked on ride problems of rebuilt Scots see Locomotive Mag., 1958, 64, 91

Macfarlane, W.A..
Senior Research Chemisst with PhD appointed to take charge of Crewe Laborartory in 1938. Wise Railway Research.

Mansfield, Peter H.
Worked on ride problems of rebuilt Scots see Locomotive Mag., 1958, 64, 91

Merritt, Henry
Born in 1899; died 1974. Appointed as Chief Research Ofice at the British Transport Commission on 30 May 1948. Joined Vickers  in 1915; later a Research Engineer at John Brown & Sons (so may have known Tuplin). During WW2 worked on Churchill tank and other track-laying vehicles. Gourvish. Wise stated that "neither of these [the other was Herbert] was a particularly happy appointment. Herbert had years of experience and some success in building up a viable research department on the LMS: while officially reporting to the Chairman he received little support from Riddles who felt no great sympathy or need for engineering research and studiously avoided any public mention of the Research Department. But Herbert was also to a degree subordinate to Merritt, a scientist who had everything to learn about railway problems. On the other hand Merritt soon found that almost no research activity existed on any of the other Executives except London Transport and that had only the traditional railway type chemical laboratory. Admittedly the ex-LMS Hotels had from time to time drawn on the assistance of the Chemists and had regularly also used the Textiles Division, practices which they proposed to continue; similarly the ex-LMS owned Canals and Docks had simple testing done by the Engineering Division but as for engaging in research they saw little need. Merritt therefore found himself to be a king without a kingdom, except for one province from which he was fairly excluded by the local prince. Nevertheless he made some progress in promoting research by the publication of Transport Research Quarterly (although this closed down in 1952) and particularly through the meetings and activities of the Co-ordination Committee. But it was still an unsatisfactory position from which Merritt resigned in 1951. He was replaced by C C Inglis who was formerly Deputy Chief Engineer of the Armament Design Establishment.

Millington, Ernest
Chief metallurgist (akthough neither a trained nor a qualified metallurgist), LMS: introduced mechanised foundries to LMS at Horwich. Retired 1935 (see Bond Lifertime). Wise Railway Research.

O'Neill, Hugh
Metallurgist, ex Manchester University.recruited to Derby in 1934. Wise Railway Research.

Page, Alex Henderson Campbell
Chief metallurgist at Derby, LMS from 1935: I.Loco.E. paper 399 Wise Railway Research.

Small, James
Member of the Institution  of Mechanical Engineers for 38 years, Prof. James Small, DSc, PhD (Member), Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Glasgow, died on the 9 January 1968 at the age of 70. Prof. Small was elected to the Chair of Heat Engines at Glasgow University in 1938; it was renamed the James Watt Chair of Mechanical Engineering in 1951. He was also appointed Director of the James Watt Engineering Laboratories and was responsible for establishment of a Hospital Engineering Research Unit which was sponsored jointly by the Nuffield Provincial Hospital Trust and the University. His drive and enterprise strengthened the position of the engineering faculty and his wide experience guided the department through difficult periods of change and growth. He also took a keen interest in Institution activities and was for a time Chairman of the Scottish Branch. A former president of the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, Prof. Small was a President of the Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow

Thomsen, Thomas Christian
Born in Denmark in 1882; moved to United Kingom and worked for Vacuum Oil Co. Patented atomizer for locomotive mechanical lubrication. See Locomotive Mag., 1918, 24, 8-9

Toms, A.H.
Conventionally trained graduate civil engineer. Initially he became known following the speedy and efficient way in which he organised the repair and re-opening to traffic of the viaduct in Brighton, which carries the Newhaven and Hastings line, after it had been severely damaged by a German bomb. However, Toms' main interest was in research and particularly in soil mechanics, the science of the load carrying capacity and modes of failure of the whole range of subsoils from chalk through rocks, sands and gravels to the various forms of clay. Toms was made the Chief Civil Engineer's Research Assistant about 1945 and took on the responsibility for soil mechanics research and for the Wimbledon laboratory which dealt mainly with problems of rails and civil engineering materials. In that position he conducted a noteworthy investigation into the problems of Folkestone Warren, a narrow stretch of land lying between the sea and the chalk cliffs on which runs the main line from Folkestone to Dover. The towering cliffs, about 500 ft high, are based on a layer of gault, a form of clay, which is relatively weak. Periodically the gault has failed by shear and slips away, leaving the chalk cliff undermined locally which may cause a major chalk fall which in turn cuts the railway line.
Major slips, all of which interrupted rail traffic for long periods, occurred in 1897, in 1915 (a great embarrassment at the time) and in 1937. The investigation showed the relationship between periods of heavy rain and the probability of slip, measured the shear strength of the gault in various states and calculated the most likely surfaces and directions on which slip in the gault would occur. Since the vertical face of the cliffs lay in a curve it was also possible to determine a focal point for all the slip directions. This focus lay just offshore and Toms proposed to lock the system by the construction of a massive block of concrete on the focal point. This was done about 1948-50 and appears to have been wholly successful in that there were no further interruptions of rail traffic in the Warren during the next forty years.
Toms was also concerned with soil failures, usually in clay formations, under the running lines. On a weak clay subsoil the dynamic forces produced by trains, particularly at rail joints, cause shear failure in the clay which "puddles" in wet weather and pumps up between the sleepers leaving voids underneath. Toms (like some others) was developing a remedial system called "blanketing" in which the clay beneath the track is removed to a depth of, say, one metre and is replaced by sand or other granular material upon which the track is relaid. To design such works effectively requires not only a knowledge of the strength of the infill materials but also of the stress levels to be expected in the soil at various depths as known wheel loads are applied. To determine these stresses Toms had designed new and elegant pressure cells to measure sub-surface stress; this gave rise to some valuable co-operation between the Civil and Mechanical research groups, as the Ashford Laboratory was called in to provide the strain gauging expertise and the electronic recording apparatus - not always with the reliability that Toms would have wished.
Later Toms developed an interest in the problem of rail head corrugation which, he was able to show, was related both to the metallurgical treatment of the rail head, the so-called Sorbitic process, and to a critical level of traffic density. When the new BR Research Department was formed, it was decided that Toms and his little team should stay with the Regional Civil Engineer and that research and development work on soil mechanics should remain a regional activity, which it did for a number of years. The Southern was later joined in this type of work by the Western Region and it was not until 1965 that the Derby Laboratories finally took over responsibility for soil mechanics research.
Wise Railway Research..

Turner, T. Henry

Wilson, G.E.
In 1947 he succeeded the late W. Darcy at the Scientific Research Department, Crewe (Locomotive Mag, 1947, 53, 15)

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